Year 2014 , Volume  3, Issue 2, Part 2
1Controllable And Uncontrollable Variables In The Study of Entrepreneurship, In Small And Medium Businesses
SILVIA POPESCU
Pages: 762-770
Details (1360)
The majority of worldwide business is conducted through small and medium businesses. The success rate for small and medium businesses is poor, with most failing within their first few years of operation. Statistical predictions for small and medium businesses which will prove successful are invalid. The means and variables used to predict the success of new entrepreneurs are under constant debate. This article explored some of the characteristics found in successful entrepreneurs, provides operational definitions for these attributes. Utilizing theories from development, education, social psychology, economics a model for understanding relational dynamics is provided. We suggested possible venues that may increase the success of small and medium businesses entrance into the global market place using this relational dynamics and discuss other applications in the social sciences and humanities. Key Words: Behavioral Economics, Successful Business Strategies, Altruistic Ability, Personal Resiliency, Game Theory, Paradigm Shifts.
2Globalization and Economic Growth. An Econometric Dimension Drawing Evidence from Nigeria
P. C. NWAKANMA and R. C. IBE
Pages: 771-778
Details (1091)
The growing integration of economies and societies all over the world has been one of the most discussed topics in international economics for several years. Globalization has many dimensions and with it a variety of social, political and economic implications. This paper examines the causal relationship between globalization and economic growth in Nigeria from 1981 to 2012. Time series data was used and sourced from the CBN Statistical Bulletin and Annual reports. The stationarity of the variables were tested using the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root tests. They were found to be integrated of order I (1). Hence, the null hypotheses of having a unit root were rejected and all the series were used in our cointegration test after first difference. The variables used in the model were GDP, Financial integration, human resource development (HRD) and trade openness (OPEN). Cointegration result indicates the existence of a long run equilibrium relationship. The regression results show a positive and insignificant relationship between financial integration, human resource development and trade openness while gross fixed capital formation was negative and insignificant. Granger causality shows a unidirectional causal relationship between financial integration and gross fixed capital formation. There is also a unidirectional causality between trade openness and gross fixed capital formation. The insignificant relationship could be as a result of insufficient capital inflow into the economy and so many negative factors bedeviling the Nigerian economy, for example corruption. The private sector should have a greater control of the economy so as to enhance its contribution towards the economic growth of Nigeria. Key Words: Globalization, Economic growth, Cointegration, Causality.
3The Influence of Risk Perception in Online Purchasing Behavior: Examination of an Early-Stage Online Market
MOUDI ALMOUSA
Pages: 779-787
Details (1207)
The study investigates the influence of Saudi Arabian consumers perceived risk in online shopping on the process of e-commerce adoption. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989), is taken as a reference framework for this study to predict attitudes towards internet shopping and online purchase intentions in an early stage market. Six types of perceived risk dimensions were investigated including; financial, social, performance, time, psychological, and privacy risks. Data were obtained from 320 Saudi Arabian internet users. Results in general suggest that consumers perceived risk has a strong negative effect on consumers attitude and intention to shop in the internet. Consumers perceived privacy and psychological risks as the most significant risk factors affecting internet shopping, followed closely by performance and financial risks. Key Words: Risk Perception, Internet Shopping, E-Commerce, Saudi Arabia, Consumer Behavior.
4Investigating the Moderating Effect of Demographic Factors on the Relationship between Monetary Motivation and Employees? Job Satisfaction at Oil and Gas Offshore Production Facilities in Malaysia
MAK MET and IBRAHIM ALI
Pages: 788-818
Details (1032)
This study investigated the moderating effect of demographic factors (age, gender, education level, tenure, and job level) on the relationship between monetary motivation and employees job satisfaction at oil and gas offshore production facilities in Malaysia. The outcomes of this study provide employers useful insight that could alter their remuneration strategy and policy. In addition, the study outcomes could also influence companys recruitment, resourcing, and talent management strategies. Data were collected using self-administered survey questionnaire from 341 employees at oil and gas offshore production facilities of selected companies in Malaysia. Convenience sampling method was used. Quantitative data analyses, which included descriptive, reliability, and inferential analyses were performed using the Statistical Product and Service Solution 21. At the .05 level, the results of the General Linear Model univariate analysis of variance showed that there was a significant moderating effect of age, gender, and job level on the relationship between monetary motivation and employees job satisfaction while education level did not show any significant moderating effect. Tenure showed weak moderating effect. Employees aged 40 years or younger reported significantly lower job satisfaction level compare to their counterparts who were 51 years or older. Male employees scored significantly higher job satisfaction level as a result of monetary motivation than female employees. Managers and supervisors scored significantly higher job satisfaction level than technicians. Key Words: Monetary Reward, Job Satisfaction, Demographic Factors, Moderating Effect, Employees, Oil and Gas, Malaysia.
5Evolution of CSR Concept in the West and China
LIJIE YANG and ZHANHAI GUO
Pages: 819-826
Details (1152)
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has experienced five stages of evolution as ethical oriented stage, differentiation and prosperity stage, chrysalis stage, ethical oriented stage, and sustainable development stage in the West from 1953. Corporate social responsibility research started in the late-1980s in China. After about 20 years of development, going through the evolution of the introduction period, chaotic period, the legal and ethical responsibility period, the concept of CSR in China achieved unification with the West with an orientation of sustainable development in the late-2000s. In China, the concept of corporate social responsibility was imported from and influenced apparently by the results of Western research, but with Chinese characteristics as well. This paper reviewed the history and evolution of corporate social responsibility concept stage by stage both in the West and China, and comparing the differences and similarity between concepts of corporate social responsibility in the West and China. Key Words: Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethical oriented, Business oriented, Sustainable development, concept, Evolution, Stage.
6Organizational Variables in Effectiveness of Police
LUIS FELIPE LLANOS REYNOSO and LUIS ARTURO RIVAS TOVAR
Pages: 827-846
Details (888)
This is a revision article about the effectiveness in police organization. Thirteen authorities on police organization were studied to identify which are the variables used in their activities related to the effectiveness. Their investigations covered a period of thirty years, from 1978 to 2008. The methodology of analysis is a qualitative approach through an exploratory expansive scope of evolution within the state of the art in this field. As a result this investigation 17 dimensions have founded to measure the effectiveness of the police force were found, which can be grouped into four variables: Organizational, Axiological, Human and Technical Development. The most common dimensions were: Training of human resources, in a second place Standardization of processes, Respect and Information System and the last for our surprise was remunerations. Key Words: Organization, Effectiveness, Police, Mexico.
7Impact of Emerging Foreign Culture Values on Chinese Women Empowerment and Financial Autonomy
KHURRAM ABBAS and YULEI RAO
Pages: 847-857
Details (862)
This paper empirically tests the changing behavior of financial decision making of Chinese working women after the opening and reform policies of government and emergence of the foreign cultural values with indigenous Chinese culture. To know the impact of the emerged artistic values on the lives of the women regarding household monetary decision making, female financial autonomy and financial empowerment an online survey and personal interviews were conducted. Survey participators were working females around the Chinese, they showed the participatory behavior in the household decision making, income generation, family oriented expenses, savings for the upcoming needs while keeping the maximum control over the financial matters. Men dominance in monetary matters at the household level was challenged by educated Chinese women. Mostly respondents have control/wants to have control over their own income as well as on the income of their husbands/future husbands. Key Words: Financial autonomy, Women empowerment, Culture Emergence, Behavioral Change Household Finance.
8Evaluating Chinese Tourists Service Quality Criteria under Uncertainty
CHU WU and RAY WANG
Pages: 858-868
Details (882)
Previous studies on tourist service quality (TSQ) involved various data to represent objective and reliable outcomes as references to explain customers preference, but different stage of sentences understanding from the respondents could have misled the results. The Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (Fuzzy DEMATEL) was applied in this study to testify TSQ criteria from tourists viewpoint, producing a service quality causal model for the industry and the academics. Fuzzy DEMATEL converted the interrelationships of criteria into a cause and effect model, and also handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. This study used literature review to attribute the twenty-two evaluation criteria to compose the survey instrument. Purposive sampling method was employed for collecting the TSQ. We found safety and considerate tourist arrangement, appropriate hardware and facilities at tourist attractions, and travel agencies service quality comprise the priority of TSQ in those of Chinese customers. The results and managerial implications are discussed. The post survey is further proved the validity of result. Key Words: Fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory, tourists? service quality, Evaluation criteria.
9Factors Affecting Customers Satisfaction in Restaurants Industry in Pakistan
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, OSAMA GHAFOOR, IQRA HAFEEZ, NAEEM AKHTAR and ASAD UR REHMAN
Pages: 869-876
Details (1150)
The purpose this study is to investigate, compare and evaluate the determinants of the customers satisfaction in fast food industry. Quality service, price, environment are used as an independent variables and customers satisfaction use as dependent variable. The research is quantitative in nature and random sampling technique has been used for data collection through a questionnaire survey and the sample size for this study was 100. Data have been analyzed through correlation and, multiple regressions. Key Words: Customers satisfaction, Service Quality, Price.
10The Affecting Factors in the Behavior of the Selected Fans of Major League Soccer (Case Study: The Cultural - Sport Clubs of Persepolis and Tractorsazi)
JAVAD SHAHLAEI, SIAMAK NIROUMAND, KAMBIZ ABDI and JEBRAEIL RAJABI GARGARI
Pages: 877-884
Details (914)
The aim of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the behavior of the selected fans of the Major League Soccer. The present is practical, descriptive-correlative, and survey in terms objective, strategy, and procedure of implementation respectively, hence conducted as a field study. The research population studied consists of the soccer fans of the teams of Persepolis of Tehran and Tractorsazi of Tabriz who were watching the matches respectively in the Stadium of Azadi in Tehran and the stadium of Yadegar Imam in Tabriz. Based on Morgans Table, the sample consisted of 361 people of the fans of Persepolis and 353 of the fans of Tractorsazi selected randomly from four groundstands of the stadium. The data gathering tools included the researcher-made questionnaire. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was used to estimate the reliability of the questionnaire, the average reliability obtained was 0.72. Descriptive statistics (mean, percentage, frequency) were used to describe the data and correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data. Of the most important result of the research one can mention be the relationship between the behaviors of the fans of both teams and the behaviors of the coaches and the favorite players, lack of amenities and services at stadiums, referees, the cost and condition of selling tickets. Key Words: Fans, Soccer, Anomalous Behavior.