Year 2022 , Volume  11, Issue 3, Part 1
1Analyzing Green Finance Incentives: An Empirical Study on the Pakistan Banking Sector
Pages: 1-14
Details (70)
The issue which is more rising recently is climate change. Furthermore, to mitigate this particular issue, some major financial institutions offer green financing to fund law-carbon investment for the banks that want to mitigate the problem. However, a scarcity of green loans stays the case. Thus, to fill this financing gap, the empirical study analyzed whether the banks in Pakistan are working for green financing. Green finance has been growing in recent years because of the policies issued by the State bank of Pakistan in 2017. Specifically, some previous papers suggest that banks have incentives for green loan borrowers in the form of new business opportunities and improved business reputation. This study aims to check the loan for sustainable development by providing business opportunities and better risk management. This study also explores the banks that promote green finance in Pakistan. Dataset was collected under the panel design for conducting quantitative tests. The collected data was related to green finance from the 16 banks performing in Pakistan between 2016 and 2020. Panel regression tests like Random and fixed effect models were applied to realize the performance of the banks providing green financing. The outcomes show that Green credit rapidly grows yearly against the other type of loans, and the NPL ratio decreases when the green loan increases to the total loan portfolio. Furthermore, the results also reveal that increases in green loans increase loan quality. The results also show that green loans are less risky than other types of loans with growing demand. This empirical thesis will be the base for the new researchers to fill the green finance gap in Pakistan, in this thesis included a comprehensive literature review and methodology about green finance.
Keywords: Green Finance, Supply & Demand Side, Green Practices, Environmental Risk Management, Green Finance Policies.
2Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure along with Economic Variables on Sales Performance of Pakistani Non-Financial Firms
Pages: 15-33
Details (50)
In the race of maximizing profits, businesses often face challenges in meeting environmental and social requirements. This paper's main objective is to assess the linkage between Disclosure Index of Corporate Social Responsibility and firms’ performances with respect to sales, in connection with some financial and economic variables as well. Return on Sales has been employed for measuring Sales performance, and CSR has been gauged by the Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure Index. From 2011 to 2020, information has been collected from forty-one listed companies of Pakistan stock exchange (PSX), pertaining to nonfinancial sector. For statistical analysis, panel data were utilized. The shareholder theory and agency theory demonstrate that Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) activities enforce a financial burden on businesses. According to shareholder theory, firms operate merely for the benefit of their stakeholders not for the welfare of the society. Furthermore, theory suggests that firms should prioritize shareholders’ wealth maximization rather than investing over CSR. According to findings of subject study, the private sector's financial development has a substantial optimistic effect on return on sales, but CSR Disclosure Index imposes an adverse effect on sales. Additionally, other variables including liquidity, leverage and size also enforce a negative outcome on sales return. The study's findings can benefit corporate managers and policymakers in making decisions apropos to execution of CSR activities. Moreover, study results lead to a better knowledge of CSR activities for a growing nation, which actively works to improve its financial culture and may facilitate closer ties with financial sector of Pakistan.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Sales Performance, Leverage, Liquidity, Size, Gross Domestic Product, Financial Development of Private Sector, Foreign Direct Investment.
3An Examination of Promotion Satisfaction Among Employees in Revenue Generating Organizations
Pages: 34-49
Details (26)
This research focused on promotion satisfaction among the employees of Revenue generating organisations in Ghana in the Tamale Metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey and involved the collection of data aligned to the research questions. The study sampled 47 respondents and adopted a non-probability sampling technique with respect to the unit of analysis using both quantitative and quantitative data collection methods. The study results revealed that employees are recognised and promoted when they always meet work deadlines and the objectives set, carry out error free task and respond to customers on time. Promotion in turn led to increased responsibility of employees, which resulted in increased workload or work volume. However, promotion does not cause employees to work outside normal working hours. Again, demographic factors such as age, educational level, performance and number of years on the job impacted promotion satisfaction except gender. The findings revealed that employees are promoted base on their recognition on the job but employees were not satisfied with issues like the working environment and relationship with colleagues. The study recommends that, Management should give recognition to effort of staff; enrich tasks, provide better and humane supervision and also ensure good work environment for their
staff to enhance promotion satisfaction. Also, delays in employees' promotion should be avoided so that employees would work with diligence and utmost commitment.
Keywords: Employee Promotion, Performance, Job Satisfaction, Recognition, Motivation, Efficiency.
4Analyzing Procurement Performance of Public Infrastructural Sector Using Procurement Maturity Model
Pages: 50-78
Details (35)
The measurement of procurement performance is a continuous exercise that includes the task of determining the efficiency and effectiveness of the procurement function in an organization. One of the most effective methods is to evaluate the organizational procurement maturity level. The research aims to develop the strategies for improvement of a procurement process by comparing with the best practices and analyzing the gap with the current procurement maturity level in public infrastructural sector of Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Procurement Maturity Model of Stephen R. Guth (2010) was selected for developing an improvement plan for procurement performance. For acquiring the necessary information, a literature study was successfully conducted to gather information related to different procurement maturity models. Furthermore, an assessment survey was distributed to respondents containing questionnaires for collecting primary data on the procurement maturity index of the respective organization and by using the PMM Guth Model (2010), the procurement performance was evaluated. Thereafter, with the help of the literature review, strategies were formulated for the improvement of procurement performance. The strategies were formulated only for selected indicators having value of high significance and correlation with the dependent variable, procurement performance. These correlations were determined by using SPSS software. As a result of the research process, after the analysis of the previously defined strategies, a proper action plan was developed in form of recommended strategies to initiate the improvement in the performance of the procurement processes and mitigate the gap between the existing practices and approved benchmarks of the procurement functions.
Keywords: Procurement Maturity Index, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Maturity Model, Maturity Assessments, Supply Chain Management, Supply Chain Performance.
5A Study on the Effects of Social Media Marketing Activities on Brand Equity and Customer Response in the Fast Food Industry
Pages: 79-89
Details (12)
In this study, the impacts of social media marketing activities (SMMAs) on brand equity and consumer response in the fast food sector are examined. The results of a survey involving 407 university students who utilized social media sites run by fast food restaurants were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Fast food SMMAs significantly affect brand loyalty and brand image, with Customization being the most crucial SMMA component. The findings of this study are anticipated to serve as vital information in the creation of SMMA strategies for the fast food industry, particularly when examining the relative significance of each SMMA component and evaluating SMMA's impacts.
Keywords: : Social Media Marketing Activities (SMMAs), Brand Equity, Brand Loyalty Brand Image, Customer Response, E-WOM and Commitment.