Year 2021 , Volume  10, Issue 2, Part 1
1Interactive Effects of Transactional Leadership and Work Meaningfulness on Job Performance
NADEEM AHMED AWAN, TARIQ JAMIL and AKRAM SADDIQUE
Pages: 1-11
Details (104)
Based on social exchange theory, current study examined the impact of transactional leadership on supervisor rated job performance of employees. Moreover, moderating role of work meaningfulness between this linkage is verified. Primary data from 240 faculty members were collected from different private and public sector universities of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Lahore & Sialkot. Simple random sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS and Hayes’s PROCESS. Correlations & Regression analysis were applied. The results bolstered the hypothesis of the study. Findings revealed that transactional leadership has a positive impact on job performance of the faculty members. Further, work meaningfulness is proven its moderating role between transactional leadership and job performance. The study will help the managers/leaders in Higher Education Sector to understand the role of transactional leadership and work meaningfulness for improving performance of the faculty members.
Keywords: Transactional Leadership, Work Meaningfulness, Supervisor Rated Job Performance, Social Exchange Theory.
2Investigating the Concept of Creative Disposition & Decision Making Styles
SAYMA ZIA, ISMAT FATIMA and SANA AZHER
Pages: 12-25
Details (75)
This purpose of this study aims to determine the impact of decision making styles in organizations operating in Karachi. It focuses on exploring different components of decision making styles and investigates the concept of creative disposition. Moreover, it determines the correlation of different components of decision making styles to creative disposition of employees. It identifies necessary changes in decision making styles to increase its impact on creative disposition. Explanatory technique is adopted to determine the impact of logic, facts and personal experiences in decision making style on creative disposition; followed by primary data collection. Quantitative paradigms are used to perform the analysis. Target population of current study comprises of employees working in organizations of Karachi. Sampling technique used is non-probability convenient sampling. Sample size is of 384. Survey technique has been adopted for data collection process. Instrument used is questionnaire for data collection multiple linear regression technique has been used for analysis. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant role of logic based decision making style, facts based decision making style and personal experience based decision making style to determine positive creative disposition shows that it has a significant impact on it. This study successfully explained importance of decision making styles in developing creative disposition in organizations.
Keywords: Logic Based Decision Making Style, Facts Based Decision Making Style, Personal Experience Based Decision Making Style, Creative Disposition.
3Unfolding Utilization of Functional Blocks of Social Media in Building Brand Equity in Higher Education Institutes
MUHAMMAD AWAIS MEHMOOD, QAISER RASHID JANJUA and FAISAL AFTAB
Pages: 26-41
Details (71)
The purpose of this research was to explore how HEIs are using Social Media (SM) as a marketing communication tool and to understand their branding focus through SM. It was investigated by understanding the utilization of functional blocks of SM by HEIs, which are believed to contribute towards elements of brand equity. Utilization of functional blocks of SM was studied through theoretical lens of honeycomb framework of SM. This study used qualitative methodology, based on inductive research approach. The data was collected via Netnography method, based on six months usage of SM accounts of seven selected HEIs of Pakistan, out of 225, which exhibited active SM presence. HEIs were found using nine different content types on SM. The content types that showed highest utilization of functional blocks, i.e. endorsements and promotional-messages, were amongst the least preferred content types of HEIs. However, their most preferred content types, i.e. event coverage & announcements, showed lowest engagement level, and were seen contributing towards lower stages of brand building i.e. brand image and awareness only, thus reflecting a myopic focus of HEIs in terms of their brand building through SM. Findings of this study will enable HEIs to revisit their content preference on SM based on the desired branding objectives. This research has extended theoretical knowledge regarding SM Marketing in context of HEIs. Further, it has extended comprehension of various functional blocks of SM, in organizational context, based on literature review.
Keywords: Social Media Marketing, Brand Equity, Honeycomb Framework, Higher Education Institutes.
4Role of the School Management for the Improvement of Teachers Satisfaction during the Conduction of Performance Appraisal System
MUHAMMAD NADEEM, SEEMA ARIF and IRFANA RASUL
Pages: 42-55
Details (63)
Teacher’s satisfaction during the conduction of Performance Appraisal System (PAS) is highly dependent on the school management. Therefore, role of the school principal for monitoring the performance of teachers at higher secondary schools is commendable to achieve the targets. Survey research was conducted to review how the school management role impacted achieving the PAS targets for the satisfaction of teachers. Multistage sampling technique was opted for exploring the opinions of school principals and teachers from nine districts of the Punjab by using an already established tool Performance Appraisal Scale for Higher Secondary School Teachers (PAS-HSSTs). This questionnaire comprised of closed-ended items was used to get opinions from 90 principals and 540 teachers of higher secondary schools of Punjab. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. Items were factorized using the explanatory factor analysis technique yielding seven factors. Pearson Correlation was conducted to determine the strength of the relationship among the variables, while multiple linear regressions using the stepwise method was conducted to check the critical risk factors associated with the satisfaction of teachers during conduction of Performance Appraisal System. Management facilitation was rendered the best approach for successful Performance Appraisal System implementation. Performance appraisal was a significant and powerful predictor of teachers’ satisfaction; hence school principals focused on the ways and procedures to manage their teachers’ performance in order to enhance the overall effectiveness of PAS. Results revealed a highly complex situation faced by school mangers; though satisfaction of the teachers during PAS might be enhanced through proper training and awareness of the system. PAS might be more effective if teachers were satisfied.
Keywords: Performance Appraisal System, Teacher’s Satisfaction, Management Role and School Improvement.
5Leadership Effectiveness in Implementing Quality Assurance Programs at Private Universities of Lahore
SEEMA ARIF, SAFIA IQBAL and MUHAMMAD NADEEM
Pages: 56-72
Details (73)
Quality assurance has become acceptable, and all private universities are trying hard to achieve better standards executed by Higher Education Commission Pakistan (HEC) every year. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programs rests upon the performance of university faculty. An exploratory study was conducted with the faculty of seven private universities in Pakistan to determine the leadership effectiveness regarding the implementation of QA programs. The strengths and weaknesses of the university leadership were measured in a three-fold exercise by identifying leadership characteristics, values, and actions taken to implement QA. For this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed, comprising both close-ended and open-ended responses. Data was collected from 430 faculty members from five private universities in Lahore, Pakistan. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to meet the research objectives. The results indicate that leadership attempts are yet superficial and inadequate to reach the transformational quality. The effectiveness of higher education leadership needs much improvement to meet the needs of the 21st century. Unless the leaders align their efforts with the faculty's expectations and involve them in shared decision making, reaching transformative quality would remain barred; therefore, the sustainability of higher education will remain in danger.
Keywords: Higher Education, Leadership Characteristics, Leadership Effectiveness, Private Universities, Quality Assurance.
6Impact of Supply Chain Collaboration on Operational Performance of Port: A Gwadar Perspective
CHAUDHRY RIZWAN RIAZ and KHALILULLAH MOHAMMAD
Pages: 73-84
Details (61)
The main concern of this study was to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. The objective of the study has been achieved through conducting a survey and primary data has been analyzed to assess the linkages between explanatory variable and dependent variable. The survey was conducted to collect the primary data from respondents to determine the impact of supply chain collaboration on port performance. The managers of the companies located in Gwardar port remain the unit of analysis and their responses have been collected. A total of 300 questioners had been distributed and a valid number of questionnaires 225 has been obtained which makes the response rate of 75%. Data properties and respondent characteristics have been outlined. The covariance based structural equation modeling has been employed to statistically signify the relationship between the supply chain collaboration on Gwadar port operational performance. Based on statistical analysis the findings of the study suggest that supply chain collaboration positively triggers the operational performance of Gwadar port.
Keywords: Port Performance, Supply Chain Collaboration, Gwadar Port, Supply Chain.
7Relationship between Strategic Leadership & Cooperative Strategy: The Moderating Role of Clan Culture. (A Case of Small and Medium Sector Organizations of Pakistan)
MUHAMMAD AWAIS EJAZ KHAN and TASNEEM FATIMA
Pages: 85-93
Details (61)
Organizational culture has attracted a great interest by theorists and researchers since many years. Leadership in organizations have emphasized on the internal culture strengths and ways to improve the efficiency by incorporating various strategies. Cooperative strategy is being associated with internal strengths and relationship and has been a primary focus area in large organizations with ample opportunity for innovation. Small and medium enterprises however, struggled with innovation and competitiveness. To foster growth, strategic leadership stressed to adopt cooperative strategies and cooperative environment. The current study attempts to reveal the underlying mechanism through which the strategic leadership can improve organizational performance through clan culture and cooperative strategies. Based on the Competing value framework and Resource based view of the firms, This research model was selected and analyzed. Clan culture is used as a moderator variable. The model explores the local Pakistani business leadership strategies in family run businesses as well as small and medium enterprises. Strategic leadership is taken as independent variable while cooperative strategy as dependent variable, Clan culture moderates the relationship between the strategic leadership and cooperative strategies. Resource based view provides a framework to analyze the role of firms tangible and intangible resources to achieve competitive advantage. Data was collected from 294 respondents through survey method. All questionnaires were personally administered. AMOS was used to test the moderated model. The moderated relationship among strategic leadership, clan culture and cooperative strategy resulted significant. Clan culture moderated relationship between Strategic leadership & cooperative strategy. This study contributes towards the enhanced application of clan culture and cooperative environment in the small and medium sized organizations as well as family owned businesses. To combat competition from larger organizations and substitute products, cooperative strategy can be very effective.
Keywords: Strategic Leadership, Organizational Culture, Clan Culture, Cooperative Strategy, SME.
8Self-Escapism Motivation: A Determinant of E-Cart Use and Abandonment
IMRAN ANWAR MIR
Pages: 94-108
Details (46)
E-shopping engagement has become a significant user activity in cyberspace. Prior scholarship has found self-escapism a crucial user motivation to engage in e-shopping. The current research identifies dimensions of self-escapism motivation to engage in e-shopping and their influence on shoppers’ attitude, e-cart use, and abandonment. Data were collected from 305 shoppers in Pakistan via an offline survey. Results reveal self-suppression and self-expansion as dimensions of shoppers’ self-escapism motivation to engage in e-shopping. These dimensions of self-escapism motivation determine shoppers’ positive affective attitude towards e-shopping. Nonetheless, they have a differing influence on shoppers’ e-cart use and abandonment.
Keywords: Self-Escapism Motivation, E-Shopping, Affective Attitude, E-Cart Use; E-Cart Abandonment.
9Analysis of the Literature of Financial Stress Index and Proposed Model for Pakistan.
KINZA YOUSFANI, ABDUL SUBHAN KAZI and KARIM BUX SHAH SYED
Pages: 109-122
Details (35)
In the recent past, research in developed markets has aimed at developing various indices that can be applied to apprehend the impact that financial stress can have on a country’s economic activity. This article reviews the literature on financial stress and its impact on economic activities. It further presents a proposed methodology for constructing financial stress index and its implications for macroeconomic performance in relation to Pakistan. A review of the literature was conducted discussing (a) the formulation of the financial stress index and (b) its impact on the country’s economic activity indicators. The analysis of the literature made it possible to identify the current themes and remaining gaps in the literature on the financial stress index. It is concluded that FSI is beneficial for monitoring and evaluating the usefulness of government economic policies in crisis as well as normal times. Moreover, the index grabs the stresses in the form of financial stress, which is not only from various market sectors but also from their connection through a contagious effect internationally. Therefore, the paper concludes that the FSI could be established and used as an effective tool to measure and monitor financial stress level and its impact on various economic activity indicators in Pakistan.
Keywords: Financial Stress Index, GDP, Industrial Production, Foreign Trade, PCA, Emerging Markets, Pakistan.