Year 2017 , Volume  6, Issue 2, Part 2
Interaction Between Monetary Policy and Fiscal Policy: An Empirical Analysis Evidence from Jordan
Pages: 495-518
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The relation between between monetary and fiscal policies is recurring theme ,also it has a crucial issue, where fiscal policy effect the action of monetary policy in various ways ,via short term in demand ,also it has via effect of the confidence and in long- run via the conditions of growth and low inflation, but enhance the monetary policy accommodative to fiscal policy or counter active. In this paper VAR, and SVAR are used, then the SVECM is utilized to have the results of paper such as to prove that the real money demand function can be existence in the long- run. Results indicates that the fiscal multiplier is too small in Jordan economy, in addition to monetary policy affects real output positively ,and it has effected the shocks and movements of inflation ratio. The inflation coefficient of the monetary rule by Taylor rule is (0.63),but its through FTPL rule is (0.67),and the debt coefficient of fiscal policy rule is (0.051)through Taylor rule, and by FTPL rule is (0.095. Key Words: Monetary policy, Fiscal policy, VAR, VECM, Granger causality, Jordan.
Effects of Cognitive Restructuring Technique on Lateness to School among Secondary School Students in Gombe, Nigeria
Pages: 519-527
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This study investigated the effects of Cognitive Restructuring Technique on Lateness among secondary school students in Gombe State, Nigeria. One research question guided the study and one hypothesis was formulated. The study was carried out using quasi-experimental design. The population of students with lateness behaviour was one hundred and sixty-five (165) latecomers. A sample of ninety (90) students with very high late coming were selected from the two schools used for the study. An observation guide was adopted by the researchers for data collection. Pre-test and post-test were given to both groups. Observation guide was used in answering the research question and ANOVA was used in testing the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that Cognitive Restructuring was effective in modifying lateness behaviour and reducing the magnitude of times of lateness among secondary school students. Based on the findings, recommendations were made including that Cognitive restructuring should be adopted by school counsellors as an effective treatment technique on students’ lateness behaviour in school setting. Key Words: Effects, Cognitive Restructuring Technique, Lateness, Students, Gombe, Nigeria.
Assessing Sociability among Employees of Sina Bank Branches in South East Region of Iran by Using Rough Set Theory
Pages: 528-540
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The objective of present study was to assess the level of sociability among employees using the rough set theory. This research is applied in terms of objective and population of study includes all employees of Sina Bank branches in South East region of Iran, which 140 of them were selected as sample of study using Morgan Table. Questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha of 0.90 was used as tool to collect data. In this study, the researcher examined the sociability of the organization using 4 factors including "receiving training, understanding, employees’ support, and future vision of the organization". Rough set theory was used to analyze the data. Accordingly, after the formation of the standardized tables, incompatible and compatible cases were determined and reduction tables were formed. Finally, the overall results showed that when the level of training in the organization is high, sociability would be also at higher level. Additionally, the results showed that when the factors of understanding and employees’ support are at the moderate level, sociability of employees increases. In addition, based on the results achieved, organization vision greatly increases the sociability of employees. Key Words: Sociability, Dimensions Of Sociability, Rough Set Theory.
An Assessment of the Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction-A Case of a Public Passenger Road Transportation Company in Zambia
Pages: 541-555
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Public passenger service transport in Zambia is a growing sector that urgently needs attention in terms of infrastructure and service quality. This is because the economy is growing and roads are getting congested especially in urban areas. Further, people are now depending much on road transport due to the poor services offered by railway transport and the huge costs and access limitation associated with air transport. The current study undertook to determine if there is a relation between quality service and customer satisfaction and if customers accessing public passenger service provided by the case company were satisfied. Consequently, the study used a descriptive and explanatory study design involving 390 respondents picked randomly over five week period. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis since service quality was found to have five relevant dimensions. The study found that customers of the case service provider were satisfied with the service and that reliability, assurance and tangibility were the most significant variables leading to customer satisfaction. Key Words: Service, Quality, Dimension, Customer, Satisfaction.
The Impact of National Contextual Factors on Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure (CSED): The Perceptions of Jordanian Stakeholders
Pages: 556-578
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This paper reviews the corporate external contextual factors affecting the practices of CSED from the perspectives of internal and external Jordanian stakeholders. Specifically, this paper aims at exploring the views and perceptions of both internal and external Jordanian stakeholders about the importance of the historical, political, economic, socio-cultural, and non-institutional factors in motivating production of CSED information by Jordanian companies. By using semi-structured interviews; extracted information from multiple groups of Jordanian stakeholders was divided into four main themes. Thus, in order to add valuable and understandable information to the thematic analysis, interpretive paradigm is adopted as a research methodology to generate and analyse knowledge existing in the interviewees' minds. The overall findings for such analysis indicated that the political conditions, legal system, cultural values and economic development are all significant factors in explaining the level of CSER disclosure in the context of Jordan. The findings also emphasized that cultural factor seems to have the greatest impact on the corporate disclosure practices. As such, it can be concluded from this paper that Jordanian stakeholders regard local contextual factors as important fundamental determinants of CSER disclosures. Key Words: Corporate Social and Environmental Disclosure, Contextual Factors, CSED, & Jordan.
Integrative Review: Factors Effecting Consumer Ethnocentrism (CET)
Pages: 579-594
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This paper provides an integrative review of the main concept of CET in terms of its definition, theoretical perspectives, and the antecedents of CET including previous empirical studies. – Four categories of antecedents, namely, socio-psychological, political, economic and demographic are gathered from the literature. The majority of this work found that consumer ethnocentrism is an important factor that can determine behaviour in the decision making of consumers as they decide to purchase local or foreign products. Ethnocentric consumers exhibit a high preference towards domestic products over foreign products even when the quality is lower and price is higher due to nationalistic reasons. Also, the review of the literature found many studies have examined the degree of consumer ethnocentrism in more developed countries, where there still remains a lack of research related to consumer behaviour in developing countries and emergent markets. The results will be useful for marketers, policy makers and businessmen to find what is especially important in consuming foreign products in local market where could help in taking strategically decisions. Key Words: Conservatism, Patriotism, Consumers, Ethnocentrism, Foreign Products.
Adding Innovation Diffusion Theory to Technology Acceptance Model: Understanding Consumers Intention to Use Biofuels in Viet Nam
Pages: 595-609
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Biofuels are drawing increasing attention on worldwide as substitutes for fossil fuels to help address energy cost, energy security and global warming. Vietnam is an agricultural country and high rates of economic growth last decade led to growing energy demands. When the fossil fuel is becoming exhausted, petroleum price is continuously increasing; finding new power resource, renewable power, to replace fossil fuels is an essential solution. This study aims to investigate factors affecting consumers’ adoption and intention to use biofuels. Combining the Innovation Diffusion Theory with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the present study proposed an extended technology acceptance model. The proposed model was tested with data collected from 302 consumers using biofuels in Vietnam. The structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was employed with the Amos program to explain the acceptance process. We explored the relationships between five innovative characteristics and the perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEU), as well as between PU, PEU, attitude and intention to use biofuels. Overall, the research model and the hypotheses were confirmed. PU is positively affected by relative advantage, compatibility and complexity. On the other hand, observatability and trialability have significant relationships with PEU. The results also show that the TAM holds true for biofuels in Vietnam. We showed that PU, PEOU have positive relationship with attitude of biofuel, whereas attitude significantly influenced intention to use it. The authors suggested that there was potential for application and development of biofuels in Vietnam. Thus, it was necessary that the government should help consumers confirm or increase their perception positively through biofuels. Key Words: Biofuels, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT), Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
Stochastic Volatility and Black Scholes Model Evidence of Amman Stock Exchange
Pages: 610-624
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This paper makes an attempt to decompose the Black – Scholes into components in Garch option model, and to examine the path of dependence in the terminal stock price distribution of Amman Stock Exchange (ASE), such as Black – Scholes’, the leverage effect in this paper which represents the result of analysis is important to determine the direction of the model bias, a time varying risk, may give fruitful help in explaining the under pricing of traded stock sheers and traded options in ASE. Generally, this study considers various pricing bias related to warrant of strike prices, and observes time to time maturity. The Garch option price does not seem overly sensitive to (a, B1) parameters, or to the time risk premium variance persistence parameter, Ω = a1+B1, heaving on the magnitude of Black –Scholes’ bias of the result of analysis, where the conditional variance bias does not improve in accuracy to justify the model to ASE data. Key Words: ASE, Black-Scholes, Garch model, Option Prices, Stochastic volatility, Strike Prices.
How M&As Impact Acquirers R&D: Japanese Pharmaceutical Industry
Pages: 625-634
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This study aims to examine the impact of pharmaceutical industry mergers and acquisitions (M&A) on research and development (R&D) investment in Japan. Employing appropriate difference-in-difference (DID) estimation techniques associated with a propensity score-matching procedure, this study focuses on two main indicators of performance: R&D-related variables and profit variables. This study finds that after five years, R&D investment increases but profit performance declines. These findings suggest that a synergy effect exists between M&As and R&D investment, and the financial burden of an M&A and a large increase in R&D investment or problems merging distinct corporate cultures may possibly cause a decline in corporate performance in the long run. This study is the first to examine the impact of M&As on R&D in the Japanese market. Using the propensity-score-matching procedure to control for these simultaneous bias problems, this study succeeds in elucidating the cause and effect between M&A and R&D. The results provide quantitative support for the establishment of certain laws in Japan about M&As and the design of policies within the pharmaceutical industry. Key Words: M&A, R&D, Pharmaceutical Industry, DID, Propensity-Score-Matching.
Customer Lifetime Value and Customer Equity of the Machine Tool Industry in Vietnam
Pages: 635-644
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Predicting customer in current and future can help the managers make more initiatives to enhance company growth plan. Many literatures display many frameworks can predict customer lifetime value, in this paper, we applied Rust’s customer lifetime value and customer equity model to calculate. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of service quality, product quality on customer satisfaction and predict the probability rate of customer repurchasing, customer retention, calculate customer lifetime value and customer equity. The structure of framework is evaluated from questionnaire data of machine tool company in Vietnam and calculated it for showing which elements can influence on customer equity. The results established significantly associated with two dimensions of customer satisfaction: product quality and service quality what elements influence on customer equity. Finally, this paper provided the suggestions to machine tool company how to allocate their marketing budget to each customer according to customer lifetime value. Key Words: Machine Tool, Customer Lifetime Value, Customer Equity.