Year 2014 , Volume  3, Issue 3, Part 4
1Socio-Economic Effects of Microfinance on Agricultural Sector: An Analysis of Farmer?s Standard of Life in Multan
Pages: 1671-1682
Details (1033)
The present quantitative study was conducted to explore the Socio-economic effects of microfinance on agricultural sector. Main objective was to examine socio-economic effect of loan on farmers daily life and to identify the social and cultural gaps those expel farmers in debts. Microfinance scheme has been dramatically increase in last decades to reduce poverty among farmers and upgrade their standard of life. Quantitative research design was used for data collection. Universe of the present study consisted of all farmers who were taking loan from ZTBL. Data was collected from two towns of Multan, Bosan town and Sher Sha town. A sample of 120 respondents was selected with the help of systematic random sampling. Interview schedule was used as a tool of data collection. Access to microfinance could view as in improving the productivity of farmers and contributing to uplifting the livelihoods. It also increases the production through which farmer is able to reinvest its surplus amount to gain maximum profit. The researcher proposed that the credit facility should be available on time while delaying in the complex procedure for taking loans resultant in the farmers not gets maximum profit regarding their plans. Key Words: Microfinance, Standard of Life, Farmer, Socio-Economic Life.
2Performance of Textile Sector of Pakistan: Application of Data Envelopment Analysis Approach
Pages: 1683-1698
Details (864)
This study aims to measure the performance and exploring the firm-specific factors which have impact on the performance of textile firms of Pakistan. The unbalanced penal data of 100 textile firms for the period of 2006 to 2011 has been used. Data envelopment analysis is employed to measure technical efficiency scores under constant as well as variable return to scale assumptions. The mean values of technical efficiency scores have been 0.82 and 0.86 under constant return and variable return to scale respectively, revealed that textile sector of Pakistan is near to efficient. Moreover, it is operated under decreasing return to scale and the existence of inefficiency is due to scale efficiency. Generalized least square estimation technique has been used to check the impact of firm specific factors on performance. Firm age, market share and sales growth have significant positive while firm size, export participation and financial leverage revealed significant negative impact on performance of textile sector of Pakistan. Key Words: Performance, Textile Sector, Data Envelopment Analysis, Technical Efficiency, Scale Efficiency.
3A Diagnostic for Earnings Management by Using Changes in Asset Turnover and Profit Margin
Pages: 1699-1708
Details (933)
Financial users are interested in evaluating companies performance and there are various methods for it. DuPont analysis is one of them. In DuPont analysis, a firms return on assets is decomposed into asset turnover (ATO) and profit margin (PM). Sale is a fundamental driver of net operating assets in the balance sheet and the main drive of net operating income in the income statement. The basis of this observation is in the articulation of the income statement and balance sheet, which ensures the effect of earnings management on operating income and net operating assets as a result of which ATO and PM move in the opposite directions. This study examines if the ratio of ATO / PM provides higher information content in detecting earnings management compared to non-discretionary accruals. Study sample includes 100 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange from 2002-2011. For research patterns, multivariate regression analysis using ordinary least squares and logistic regression were utilized. To identify data arrangement (panel or cross-sectional), Chow and Hausman tests were used. Based on the results, ratio of ATO / PM provides higher information content than non-discretionary accruals; changes of ATO and PM in the opposite direction are more likely for earnings management. Key Words: Non-Discretionary Accruals, Profit Margin, Asset Turnover, Earnings Management, Joan Dupont Ratio.
4Firms Strategic CSR Choices during the Institutional Transition in Emerging Economies
Pages: 1709-1727
Details (1637)
How do organizations react to changes of institutions when they undergo fundamental transition that happen to those emerging economies? By applying Pengs two-phase model of institutional transitions to the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), this paper seeks answers to the question above. With a framework of institution theory, we focused on CSR strategies that can be selected by different forms of business organizations (incumbent, start-ups, and foreign firms) in the longitudinal process. We argued that in the early phase of institutional transition, CSR relevant institutions are still in vacuum leaving social responsibilities to the firms discretion. However as the market moves to more rule-based, CSR institutional pressures are also strengthened in regulative, normative and cognitive ways. Then, we draw our propositions on CSR strategic choices for incumbent, start-ups and foreign firms, respectively. By doing so, this study expanded understanding of strategic perspectives of CSR literature in academic for policy makers of emerging countries as well as practitioners of the different forms of business organizations. Key Words: Corporate Philanthropy, Incumbent Firms, Entrepreneurial Start-ups, Foreign Firms.
5Pakistan Railways at the Verge of Collapse: A Case Study
Pages: 1728-1739
Details (799)
An effective railway system of the country facilitates commerce and trade, reduces transportation cost and promotes rural development and national integration. Pakistan Railway is a national state-owned rail transport service of Pakistan, head-quartered in Lahore and administered by the federal government under the Ministry of Railways. Pakistan railway provides an important mode of transportation throughout Pakistan. It plays an important role in bringing the farthest corners of the country closer for the purpose of business, sightseeing, education, pilgrimage and many other important services. Pakistan railway is not only the cheapest yet safe mode of transportation, this public state enterprise is also the largest civil employer of the country but currently the dwindling sustainability of Pakistan Railways (PR) continues to be of great concern to the pride of Pakistani people in general and causes a serious dent in the image of Pakistani management prowess in particular. Unfortunately over the years lack of attention, poor policies, increasing expenditures, misappropriation of funds, pilferage, nepotism, floods and inadequate technology and mismanagement have left Pakistan Railway with huge budget deficits running in billion of rupees and other crises have enrolled PR that seriously had aggravated appearing as question mark on its sustainability. This study attempts to highlight the current deteriorating condition of Pakistan Railway from an operational, financial and other related perspectives by analyzing the various factors responsible affecting the performance of PR both at the local and global level. The consequences and implications of this grave situation on the national economy are identified and in particular the role and support of government in response is also accounted. Although the continuous decline had left PR nowhere on a global level yet efforts were made to compare PR with other countries in particular neighboring countries such as India and China and also signifying the importance of PR on a competitive basis in comparison to other modes of transport is also discussed. Key Words: Transport Policy, Market Share, Infrastructure, Asset Issues, Privatization, Mismanagement, PR.
6Investigating the Level of Empowerment in Employees and Its Relations with Organizational Factors
Pages: 1740-1750
Details (887)
The objective of this research is to identify the relations between the empowerment levels of the employees and organizational factors. Psychological empowerment model is used to measure the employees empowerment, having the criteria such as competence, self-determination, meaningfulness, impact, and trust in the occupation. Also, the factors including possession of clear goals, reward system, resource accessibility, organizational structure, performance evaluation and professional development are considered as organizational factors. The investigation method in this research is descriptive-surveying. The statistical population of this research included all the official employees of University of Isfahan having bachelor degrees that were 304 individuals and 57 people were selected as samples by using Cochran formula. Cluster sampling was used for the sampling purpose. The research results show that the empowerment level in the employees is appropriate in all the measures except for the criterion in trust. Moreover, the findings in the relations between organizational factors and the empowerment level show that there is a significant and direct relationship between the level of empowerment of the employees and the factors such as clear goals, reward system, accessibility to resources, performance evaluation systems, and the professional development, but no significant relation exists between the organizational structure and the empowerment levels in employees. Key Words: Empowerment, Competence, Impact, Meaningfulness, Self-Determination, Trust.
7Relationship Between Selected Factors of Job Satisfaction and Job Performance Among Workers at Palm Oil Industries
Pages: 1751-1766
Details (1407)
This study aims to identify the relationship between selected factors of job satisfaction and job performance. The factors of job satisfaction that examine in this study are including pay, work itself, promotion, supervision, and co-workers. The research instrument for this study was used questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. This study was conducted at two oil palm industries, which located in Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia. 100 sets of the questionnaires were distributed to the employees in oil palm industry. However, only 81 sets of the questionnaires were successfully collected. The data that collected were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.0. Pearson Correlation Analysis used to identify the relationship between the selected factors of job satisfaction and job performance. The findings in this study indicated that there is significant relationship between selected factors of job satisfaction and job performance. Through the findings, the organization and human resource practitioners were recommended to understand and satisfy employees needs in order to improve employees job performance in oil palm industry. Key Words: Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Oil Palm Industries, Pay, Promotion, Supervision, Co-Workers.
8Investigating the Effect of Emotional Intelligence Components on Organizational Maturity and Job Burn-Out in Mapna Companys Staff in Paresar Combined Cycle Power Plant
Pages: 1767-1772
Details (768)
In the present study the effect of emotional intelligence program on organizational maturity and job burn-out in Mapna Companys Staff in Paresar combined Cycle Power Plant has been investigated. In the present study, firstly the population of 300 people were randomly selected from among all working staff in Mapna Companys Staff in Paresar combined Cycle Power Plant and were evaluated through the test of organizational maturity and job burn-out, the sample population containing 40 staff members from among those having low organizational maturity and high job burn-out were randomly selected and were located in two 20 people groups. One of the groups was randomly exposed to training emotional intelligence for 3 months and the second group received placebo. At the end both mentioned groups were evaluated through related test (organizational maturity, job burn-out). The results were analyzed through SPSS. The research is experimental two group pretest and posttest. The analyses was conducted through MANCOVA and revealed that training emotional intelligence affected on the increase of organizational maturity and decrease of job burn-out. Training emotional intelligence improved organizational maturity and decreased job burn-out. Key Words: Training the Variables of Emotional Intelligence, Organizational Maturity, and Job Burn-out.
9The Effect of Perceived Justice and Organizational Silence on Organizational Commitment
Pages: 1773-1789
Details (911)
The ultimate aim of this study is to examine the mediating role of organizational silence in relation with organizational justice and organizational commitment. Methodology in this research is descriptive evaluative. A total of 200 questionnaires were used for data analysis and SEM analysis was used to analyze the data. The results indicated that silence of employees does not play the role of mediator in relationship with organizational justice and organizational commitment. Also the results indicated that organizational justice respectively had a significant negative and positive impact on organizational silence and organizational commitment. It is noteworthy that the effect of organizational justice is more than Organizational silence. Also the results indicated that organizational silence has no significant effect on organizational commitment. The results obtained suggest that more efforts should be attributed to consult with employees thus employees realize themselves as a partner in the goals of the organizations. Also arrangements should be considered for employees to express their criticisms without being identified; And at the same time in order to communicate effectively, Classes on conflict management and ways to resolve interpersonal conflicts should be held for managers and employees. Employees who are criticizing organizational procedures and policies and are protesting against the current issues should not deal with severity and on their Monthly evaluations and fringe benefits it should not have negative impact. Key Words: Silence of Employees, Organizational Commitment, Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, Interactional Justice.
10Agro-Food Firms Competitiveness: Made in Italy in the World
Pages: 1790-1796
Details (866)
Agro-food industry has great relevance in Italy. However few studies have analyzed factors affecting global competitiveness of small and medium agro-food firms. At the aim to fill this literature gap we investigate factors supporting the Made in Italy in the world. The paper presents a qualitative analysis realized through some semi-structured questionnaire and a case study. We evidenced that innovation and internationalization affect competitiveness of Italian agro-food firms in the world. This paper offers a new perspective on agro-food firms strategies to compete globally. Key Words: Agriculture Food, Firm, competition, Italy.