Year 2014 , Volume  3, Issue 2, Part 3
1Investigating the Role of Demographic Characteristics on Consumer Ethnocentrism and Buying Behavior
SAIRA AZIZ, WASEEM BAHADUR, BINESH SARWAR, RUKHSHANDA FAROOQ and MUNAZA ARSHAD
Pages: 885-893
Details (1020)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of demographic characteristics on consumer ethnocentrism and buying behavior. This study will also attempt to gaze at and scrutinize the belongings of several demographic variables, i.e., gender, age, education level, income level on the consumer ethnocentric tendencies among Pakistani consumers. Four independent variables age, gender, income, and education were taken to check the ethnocentric behavior of respondents towards buying. Respondents were approached from central Punjab and 7-point lickert was used to measure the variables. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 17 was used for data analyses. The data analysis instigate with the demographic profile of the respondents. The test of mean differences between subgroups in the demographic variables were tested using independent sample T-test and one-way ANOVA. These tests were conducted to verify whether or not the subgroups within each demographic variable are significantly different in terms of their perceptions towards consumer ethnocentrism. From results it was concluded that male consumers, older, high education, low income consumers seem to have higher ethnocentric tendencies. This study will surely provide a pragmatic confirmation for the effect of demographic variables on consumer ethnocentrism and will help the researchers to further work on some other variables. Key Words: Ethnocentric Behavior, Age, Gender, Income, Education, Willingness to buy.
2Compiling Strategies and Determining Strategic Situation of Acquiring the Hosting and Holding the Great International Sport Events in Iran
HUSSEIN ZOKAEI, LOQMAN KESHAVARZ, ABOLFAZL FARAHANI and MORTEZA REZAEI SOOFI
Pages: 894-906
Details (954)
The purpose of this article is to compile strategies and to determine strategic situation of acquiring the hosting and holding the great international sport events in Iran. According to the objective and data collection method, this article is of applied type and descriptive-analytic respectively. The universe includes 230 sport management professors, higher executive managers and technicians of the country sport scope. The article done in both quantitative and qualitative parts. In qualitative part, the samples were 25 through purposeful sampling method. In quantitative part, they were 141 selected randomly by means of Morgan table. Based on data measurement tools ? studying book, articles and theses, holding purposeful interview and counseling sessions, studying opinions of sport management experts and higher executive sport technicians of the country?the information provided into two technical parts. First part is personal information including 5 questions measuring the participants personal traits (gender, age, education, job experience and position). The second part is a researcher-made questionnaire to identify strong points, weak points, opportunities and threats (SWOT) for hosting and holding the great international sport events in Iran. The final SWOT list includes 7 strong points, 16 weak points, 9 opportunities and 9 threats identified and prioritized through confirmatory factor analysis, Bartlett and KMO tests. The questionnaire validity confirmed by 20 sport management professors and the reliability (0.78) obtained through Cronbachs alpha test. The results proved that tourism attractions with 0.821factor load considered as major strong points and weak sport marketing in the country with 0.926 factor load considered as the biggest weak point in this part from the spectators viewpoint. Strategic and geopolitical position of Iran in the critical region of Middle East with 0.932 factor load is the most important item in opportunity part and existence of powerful competitors for hosting the sport events in the region and world level with 0.891 load factor is the most important item threatens hosting and holding the great international sport events in the country. Moreover, the results proved that Iran is in critical situation for hosting the events from the viewpoints of internal or external factors. Beside internal weak points, the country faced with several major external threatens that put it in the worst (WT) position in the SWOT matrix. Key Words: SWOT, Strategy, Hosting, Sport Event, Strategic Situation.
3Claiming Damages for Late Delivery of Vacant Possession of Private Houses in Malaysia: Legal Issues and Challenges
NAEMAH AMIN, AZLINOR SUFIAN, SHARIFAH ZUBAIDAH SYED ABDUL KADER and SALINA KASSIM
Pages: 907-914
Details (1504)
One of the main duties of the housing developer under the statutory sale and purchase agreement is to complete the construction of the house on time. Under the Malaysian housing law, the period of completion and handling over vacant possession for landed property is 24 months and for sub-divided building is 36 months. However in practice, very rare buyers get the keys to their houses on time. According to clause 20(2) of Schedule G of the Housing Development (Control and Licensing) Act 1966, the buyer is entitled to claim for Liquidated Ascertained Damages (LAD) for the delay in completion. It is a statutory remedy to compensate the buyer for the failure of the developer to fulfill his obligation under the agreement to hand over vacant possession on a specific date. The LAD should be calculated from day to day at the rate of 10% per annum of the purchase price. However claiming the LAD is not as simple as it supposed to be since most of the time the developer refuses to pay the LAD for various reasons. Thus a claim for LAD needs to be filed in the court or the Tribunal for Homebuyer Claims. Nonetheless winning the case does not guarantee that the buyer will receive the compensation. Adopting a qualitative method of content analysis, this paper aims to examine various legal issues and challenges faced by consumers in claiming damages for late delivery of vacant possession. The paper also explores possible solutions to existing flaws in the law and practices. Key Words: LAD, late delivery, housing project, legal issues, consumers.
4Risk in Funding Infrastructure Projects through Sukuk or Islamic Bonds
ABDUL AZIZ ABDULLAH, AHMAD SHUKRI YAZID, ADAM ABDULLAH and MOHD SHAHRIL KAMARUDIN
Pages: 915-928
Details (939)
The funding of infrastructure projects via the issuance of sukuk or Islamic bonds is emerging as a popular funding alternative to conventional bonds. However, there are certain risks when funding infrastructure projects. This paper aims to identify and profile risks associated with funding infrastructure projects from the issuance of sukuk, through a rigorous review of literature. These risks will be structured in order to formulate those risks associated from the issuance of sukuk. This paper will also assess risks that transpire from issuing of sukuk to fund infrastructure projects. By identiying the sukuk risk, it should enable stakeholders to address related funding issues. Key Words: Project management, Risk management, Infrastructure Project and Islamic Capital Market.
5Students Perception of Service Quality Encountered and their Future Enrichment: Implication for Academic Quality Assurance in Nigeria Polytechnics
IRO-IDORO CHARLOTTE BOSE, AYODELE KOLAWOLE OLANREWAJU and ORIJA JAMES IGE
Pages: 929-937
Details (1011)
Quality is one of the core functions for service organizations, which is an ongoing process of building and sustaining relationships by assessing, anticipating and fulfilling stated and implies needs. It is inevitable to measure the students perception on the service quality encountered from Nigerian Polytechnic for their future enrichment. Hence, the present study uses the SERVQUAL scale developed by Pariseau & McDaniel (1997) and Tan, et al (2010) to measure the service quality. One thousand eight hundred and fifty (1850) randomly selected students from two Polytechnics in Ogun State, Nigeria took part in the study. Data analysis involved mean and standard deviation as descriptive statistics and Pearson product moment correlation, t-test and regression analysis as inferential statistics. The study showed that the students perceptions on service quality encountered are not up to their level of expectations, and there were statistically significant differences in their perception based on gender (t = 2.286, P< 0.05), career choice (t = 5.337, P< 0.05), and on school type (t = 1.581, P>0.05). Also, the results revealed composite (R =.657, R2= .389) contributions of the service quality dimensions on students perception of their future enrichment. Tangible (β = .801, t = 7.111, P < .05) has been identified as the most potent predictor of good service quality as compared to other four (4) dimensions, reliability (β = .209, t = 1.614, P < .05), responsiveness (β = .733, t = 5.505, P < .05), assurance (β = .717, t = 5.203, P < .05) and empathy (β = .444, t = 3.181, P < .05). Recommendations and implication for academic quality assurance in Nigeria Polytechnics were given. Key Words: Quality Assurance, Service Quality Encountered, Polytechnic Students? Perception, Assurance, Responsiveness, Reliability, Tangibles and Empathy.
6Factors Affecting the Success of Malaysian Expatriates on Foreign Assignments
MOHAMED SULAIMAN, AZURA OMAR, OSMAN ABDULKERIM YUSSUF and ABDUL KADIR OTHMAN
Pages: 938-948
Details (1340)
Companies conducting business overseas is a common phenomenon due to globalization. Employees are assigned to work in different countries for certain periods of time. Some employees are successful but others fail to meet expectations because of various factors. This study is an attempt at examining the factors affecting Malaysian expatriates success on foreign assignments. The employment of expatriates has become part and parcel of Multi-National Corporation (MNC) business organizations way to expand their businesses internationally. Malaysian companies operating abroad normally employ Malaysians as expatriates. A sample of nine respondents was selected based on their experience as expatriates, seven males and two females. The study found that the primary factors influencing the success of Malaysian expatriates include the selection of expatriates, emotional intelligence, preparation before their departure, adjustment to the new place of work, support from the Headquarters, and compensation package. Key Words: Success, Malaysian expatriates, Foreign assignments
7Influence of Street Life and Gender on Aggression and Self-esteem in a Sample of Nigerian Children.
JUDE O. EZEOKANA, HARRY OBI-NWOSU and CHUKWUEMEKA A.F. OKOYE
Pages: 949-959
Details (1051)
This study evaluated the influence of street life and gender on aggression and self esteem of children in two metropolitan cities of Anambra State, Nigeria. A total number of 412 participants aged from 13-17 years, comprising of 277(67-2%) males and 135(32.8%) females, with the mean age of 14.91 years and standard deviation of 1.36 took part in the study. They responded to Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (1992), Rosenberg self-Esteem scale (1979), Picture Apperception Test (2012), observation, interview and focused Group Discussion (FGD). The study adopted a 3x2 factorial design to test the hypotheses and used multiple Analyses of variance statistic for data analysis. The results showed that street children differed significantly from non- street children on level of aggression at F (1, 1410) =108.54, p<.05. But did not differ significantly on self-esteem; F(1,410)=1.36,p>.05. Street children who had contact with their families and those who had not, did not differ in level of aggression; F(1,258)=.02,p>.05, and also did not differ in their self esteem status; F(1,258)=.02,p>.05. Male and female street children did not differ in their level of aggression at F (1,258) =0.6, p>.05; but differed in their self esteem status; F (1,258)=4.44,p>.05. The study has provided background empirical information on the emerging cankerworm of street children phenomenon, which will serve as impetus for further studies in this area. Key Words: Street life, Gender, Aggression, Self-esteem, Children.
8A Success Model for Project Management During National Crises
ESKANDER HOWSAWI, DAVID EAGER, RAVINDRA BAGIA and KLAUS NIEBECKER
Pages: 960-981
Details (993)
In project management, success is the ultimate goal. Success requires appropriate tools and techniques. Given the multi-dimensions of uniqueness in projects, success tools and techniques should be customized to suit a particular project or a set of closely related projects. In this paper the national crisis was selected as the context in which project success is sought. After reviewing the notion of project context, success factors and project strategy, the authors provided a theoretical explanation and a generic model of the relationship between project strategy, success factors and project success. Following this explanation, the authors analyzed a set of 24 cases from the British aviation industry that occurred during the crisis of World War 2. Based on the results of such analysis, the authors created a success model containing the strategies and success factors needed for successful project management in such a context. The authors then analyzed another case that is different from the first set of 24 cases. The model was validated and refined based on the second case. The authors then showed the application of the model on other cases unrelated to the previous ones. The authors concluded with remarks about the importance, contribution, implication and limitations of this study. Key Words: Project Management, Project Success, National Crisis, Success Strategy, Success Factor.
9Demand of Family Takaful in Malaysia: Critical Determinant Factors Examined
JULIANA ARIFIN, AHMAD SHUKRI YAZID and MOHD RASID HUSSIN
Pages: 982-992
Details (1152)
It was reported that Malaysia has experienced a low penetration rate for the Family Takaful business despite the many forms of incentives provided by the Government. The available literature that focuses on life assurance and related research on Family Takaful is rather scarce. In view of this, it must be mentioned that, this particular study is significant because it provides a critical insight and better understanding of the critical factors that actually determine the Family Takaful demand in Malaysia. Thus, the main objective of this study is to determine the critical factors for Family Takaful demand among Muslim customers in Malaysia. The study involves a survey using structured questionnaires to solicit responses from Muslim customers who have joined Family Takaful plans in selected leading Takaful companies. Data analysis involves the use of stepwise regression analysis. From a set of factors that contributed to the Family Takaful demand in this study, the eventual result of regression analysis showed that religious adherence (including all dimensions such as faith and belief, obligatory Islamic practices, and highly recommended non-obligatory Islamic practices), reputation and image were the critical factors that influence family Takaful demand among Muslim customers in Malaysia. Key Words: Takaful, Islamic Insurance, Family Takaful, Malaysia.
10Factors Affecting the Implementation of Strategic Plans in Public Secondary Schools in Nyeri County, Kenya
DOMINIC MAINA NDEGWAH
Pages: 993-1002
Details (1228)
Strategic plans are considered to be very important in the management and success of organizations. School strategic planning is key to success of a school with regard to achievement of its mission, goals and objectives. Though the Ministry of Education directed that Public Secondary schools must formulate and implement Strategic Plans; some Schools have been faced with the challenges in the implementation of their strategies. This study carried out an analysis of factors influencing the implementation of Strategic Plans in Public Secondary Schools in Mukurweini & Othaya Sub-counties of Nyeri County, Kenya. The study was guided by four objectives and data was collected to answer the following four questions: - How Managerial skills, Institutional policies, Resources allocation and Rewards & Incentives influence the implementation of Strategic Plans. The population for the study was the institutions Principals or their Deputies in the 2 Sub-counties. The accessible population was made up of 66 schools Principals/Deputies (32 in Mukurweini and 34 in Othaya) and an interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Both descriptive and quantitative was collected and analyzed in order to answer the four questions of the study. The study had 20 schools responding from each sub-county representing 65% in Mukurweini and 60% in Othaya. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that public secondary schools in Mukurweini & Othaya Sub-counties had strategic plans and their implementations are influenced by among other factors, Managerial skills, Institutional policies, Resources allocation and Rewards/Incentives. Its recommended that Principals/Deputies be equipment with the necessary Managerial Skills; schools should enforce institutional policies; should have resources allocation policies/budgets and should have reward/incentive schemes which help in the successful implementation of the school?s strategic plans. Key Words: Strategy, Implementation, Public Schools, Kenya.
11Factors Effecting the Customers Selection of Restaurants in Pakistan
AHSAN AZIM, NOOR ALI SHAH, ZEESHAN MEHMOOD, SAJID MEHMOOD and MOHAMMAD MAJID MEHMOOD BAGRAM
Pages: 1003-1013
Details (1666)
Restaurants are the growing industry in service and hospitality sector. People preferences regarding selection of services especially in food market are changing rapidly. The paper aims to explore the most important and influential factors that effect the customers selection of the restaurants. The paper will help the restaurants management to make their policies according to the need and preferences of the customers to get the maximum profit, loyalty and attraction of the customers. To find out factors that are not yet been identified interviews are conducted. Three new factors?privacy, preferential treatment and suitable environment for family gathering ? are identified and then a descriptive analysis method is used to find the most influential factors. The results show that five out of various factors have the greater affect on this selection?food quality & taste, cleanliness, physical environment, staff cooperation and suitable environment for family gathering. In the light of the results of the paper it is worthwhile to use both financial and non-financial ? strategies to make the restaurant attractive for the customers. Key Words: Restaurant; environment for family gathering; customer satisfaction; service quality.
12Factors Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Banking Sector of Pakistan
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, OSAMA GHAFOOR, NAEEM AKHTAR, IQRA HAFEEZ and ASAD UR REHMAN
Pages: 1014-1025
Details (2486)
Objective of the study was to study the factors affecting Customer Satisfaction in Banking Sector of Pakistan and to find the relationship between Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty. Research design of the study is quantitative and surveys research method has been used in it. Data was collected from four different cities: Sahiwal, Arifwala, Okara and Pakpatan. Data has been collected through already tested structured questionnaire from 72 respondents. Results of this study show that there is significant relationship between service quality attributes and customer satisfaction. It also revealed that positive relationship exists between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. With the help of this study we can conclude that service quality leads to satisfied customers and customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty. In todays competitive world banks can get competitive advantage by providing superior services to their customers. Key Words: Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty.
13Analysis on the Long Run Relationship between the Economic Growth and Its Determinants of Selected North African Countries
ELMASHAT ESSADQ ALI ABUD, HUSSIN ABDULLAH and AHMAD SOBRI JAAFAR
Pages: 1026-1037
Details (989)
This paper develops and tests a panel cointegration model to examine the interaction between economic growth and its determinants of selected North African Countries. The analysis is applied to five heavily indebted North African countries-namely Algeria, Egypt, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia. The results based on Pedroni cointegratioan and fully Modified OLS (FMOLS), the tests proposed by Pedroni suggest that servicing a heavy debt could have an adverse impact on economic growth and capital inflow which in turn worsens the debt problem. Key Words: Relationship, Long Run, Economic Growth and African Countries.
14Difference Between Islamic Banks and Commercial Banks Performance In Pakistan
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, NAEEM AKHTAR, OSAMA GHAFOOR, IQRA HAFEEZ, ANJUMAN CHAUDHRI and ASAD UR REHMAN
Pages: 1038-1046
Details (1595)
Researcher could find the difference between the performance of Islamic and commercial banks. Banks are the financial or large sector of our economy. Banks play a very important role in our economic development. Islamic and Commercial banks are two broad sectors of our banking system. Islamic banks conduct banking on Islamic laws but commercial banks conduct banking on manmade laws. Researcher fined the difference between the performance of Islamic and commercial banks on the base of profitability. Profitability checked by return on asset (ROA) or return on equity (ROE). Researcher fined that there is a clear difference between the Islamic and commercial banks performance on the base of profitability in terms of ROA or ROE. Researcher also fined that if differences in performance exist between Islamic and commercial banks also affect this difference on depositors behavior. Key Words: Islamic Banking, Commercial Banking, Comparison.
15The Performance of Rural Banks in Ghana: The Ages Have Past Anything Recommended for the Future
GEORGE OWUSU-ANTWI, JAMES ANTWI and MARGRET CRABBE
Pages: 1047-1060
Details (1212)
Over the years, the RBs, which are often viewed as the small mans bank, have taken deep roots and have become a sort of inseparable part of the rural credit structure. Despite the role played by the rural banks in the rural financial climate and the effort by the government to energize their growth, their performance within the financial scene, over the last three and half decades has not been up to the expectation. The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of the rural banks in Ghana by using financial ratios as a tool of measurement. The paper use average time series data obtained from Bank of Ghana and APEX Bank annual reports, covering the existing 127 RCBs in Ghana. The paper contributes to the body of knowledge by providing an indication to policymakers, regulators and shareholders in regards to the rural banks performance. A regression model was developed with return on asset as the dependent variable associated with six explanatory variables. The results of the study pleaded in favor of all the explanatory variables to be the main drivers that influence rural banks performance in Ghana. Notwithstanding the model registered liquidity variable to be insignificant. Key Words: Rural Community Banks, Bank of Ghana, Apex Bank, Performance, Ghana.
16Examination of the Effect of Service Quality on Spectator Behavioral Intentions Through their Satisfaction (Case Study: Spectators of Mashhad Farsh-Ara futsal Team in Iran Premier League)
MOHSEN ALAGHEBANDI TOOSI, FARIBORZ RAHIM NIYA and ALIREZA POOYA
Pages: 1061-1072
Details (1058)
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of service quality on spectator intentions through their satisfaction. To measure service quality, Gronroos (1984) theoretical framework which contained two dimensions of technical quality and functional quality was used .The methodology was descriptive survey and the data was collected through random sampling among 241 spectators of Shahid Beheshti Stadium in 1391 which was obtained by Cochran formula . To examine hypothesis, Structural Equation Modeling in Error level of 0.05 was used .The results indicate the effect of functional quality on spectators satisfaction with regard to regression coefficient (0.08) and p-value (0.375) which is more than significance level of 0.05, is not significant. Therefore, with possibility of 95 % functional quality doesnt have any positive effect on spectators satisfaction .The results also indicate the effect of technical (outcome) quality on spectators satisfaction with regard to regression coefficient (0.76) and p-value (0.000) which is less than significance level of 0.05, is significant. Therefore, with possibility of 95 %, technical (outcome) quality has positive effect on spectators satisfaction. The results also demonstrate indicate the effect of satisfaction on spectators intention with regard to regression coefficient (0.67) and p-value (0.000) which is less than significance level of 0.05, is significant. Therefore, with possibility of 95 %, satisfaction have positive effect on spectators intention .Considering the survey findings , spectators satisfaction have many benefits for the clubs. Clubs managers must do their best to improve the service quality offered to spectators as well as to employ star players in order to provide spectators with satisfaction which results in spectators presence in stadiums . Key Words: Sport Marketing, Service Quality, behavioral intentions and satisfaction.