Year 2014 , Volume  3, Issue 1, Part 4
1The Power of Multinational Companies in a Global World The Focus of Corporate Governance and its Impact on Business Ethics
JOS? G. VARGAS-HERNANDEZ, MARIELA SANDOVAL-VALENCIA and JOS? SATSUMI L?PEZ-MORALES
Pages: 444-453
Details (931)
The aim of this work is to identify the conditions of globalization that have led to suppose that transnational corporations are economic agents that negatively impact on business ethics from the perspective of corporate governance. The method of study was based on a thorough theoretical and literature review and the results obtained confirm the negative impact, since the use of corporate social responsibility programs are strategies to increase profits and global power rather than to achieve social impact. Key Words: Transnational firms, business ethics, globalization, corporate governance, corporate social responsibility.
2Fair Trade - Social Solidarity Economy: an Alternative of Economic Integration
CARLOS GERMAN PALAFOX MOYERS, JOEL ENRIQUE ESPEJEL BLANCO, CLAUDIA ADRIANA OCHOA NORIEGA and ALBA LORANY AMPARANO MEZA
Pages: 454-464
Details (807)
The results of international trade have generated a set of both winners and losers. On one side we have the big companies and big producers that stand out and on the other hand, there is a sector that has been affected such as groups of peasants, rural communities, cooperatives, amongst others that live in the poor southern countries. Therefore, the objective of this research article is the search and the design of mechanisms that will counteract the flaws of the current systems, and that will translate into social policies to give a solution to the more unprotected people. Fair trade is an alternative that is heading towards practices of a more social and solidary economy and through these mechanisms, that are funded in a solidary and cooperative base, in the last years fair trade has shown a series of ventures that under this logic have given response to the existent problems of unemployment, poverty, gender inequality and contamination. Key Words: Fair Trade, Social Solidary Economy, Economic integration.
3Embedding Sustainable Development into Higher Education: A Case Study from Egypt
RANDA EL BEDAWY
Pages: 465-484
Details (869)
A rapid movement of educational reform is taking place nowadays. Education for sustainable development is becoming increasingly important at all levels of the educational system including higher education due to the scarcity in natural resources. The higher education for sustainable development gained a great importance in developed countries, let alone developing ones as Egypt. In order to cope with global and international changes, after three years since Egypt January 2011 youth revolution, one of the main challenges in Egypt is how to integrate different sustainability ideas and principles within different educational activities. The universities play the core role towards sustainable development which reflects the main aim of this study that aimed to generate a model for its adoption in Egypt through examining a case study of Heliopolis University for Sustainable Development as the first non-profit university in the Middle East declaring sustainable development as its overall guiding principle, as a model of embedding Sustainable Development into Higher Education in Egypt. On the academic level, the importance of this study raised from the fact that there are few studies within the Egyptian context that shed the light on the themes, meanings, opportunities and challenges facing teaching for sustainable development at higher education. On the practical level, this study aimed to shed the light on a good model of a case study of higher education for sustainable development in Egypt, including the challenges and opportunities revealed as well as the areas where recommendations needed to support higher education?s contribution to sustainable development. Key Words: Sustainability, Development, University, Environmental Education, Sustainability in Higher Education, Education for Sustainability.
4Promoting Micro-Savings through the NGO Model: The Success Story of Sinapi Aba Trust
SAM AFRANE and MICHAEL ADUSEI
Pages: 485-492
Details (776)
The aim of this paper is to offer a cogent basis for integration of voluntary micro-savings into the NGO model of microfinance. We use data from SINAPI ABA TRUST (SAT), a microfinance institution operating in Ghana. The study finds that voluntary savings scheme of SAT has outperformed its compulsory counterpart in terms of annual growth in savings mobilization and that despite the predominance of females in the microfinance industry their propensity to save is less than their male counterparts. The paper concludes that, contrary to the orientation of the NGO model of microfinance, the poor and financially excluded are willing to save. Key Words: Microfinance, Micro-savings, Sinapi Aba Trust, NGO.
5Social Media Marketing (SMM) and Business Organizations: Findings from the Latest SMM Survey (2012)
MOHAMMAD ALMOTAIRI
Pages: 493-497
Details (834)
The role of Social media marketing to optimally achieve organizational objectives has been received momentum in the modern days. A huge number of people use social media in their routine life which benefits the Business Organizations (BOs) and Marketers to easily interact with their clients utilizing this platform for commercial activities. This paper attempts to dig out policy implication from the latest social media marketing survey (2012) for business organizations. The policy implications have been suggested fewer than four main headings of the survey; Use of Social Media for Business Expansion, age factor, benefits of SSM and community used social media marketing tools. This study uses social media marketing survey report 2012. This report comprises of 3800 marketers? responses. The objective of this survey was to comprehend that how the marketers/ business organizations were using social media to grow and promote their businesses? The study reveals that Social Media Marketing (SMM) is an important tool for todays? all kind business. It helps in organizational goals such as increasing market shares, identification of loyal clients, minimization of cost and maximization of profit. Facebook is the top social media network used by marketers for their business promotions. Marketers at the age of 20-30 spending more time on social media as compared to other groups representing the ideal age group for BOs for marketing on social media. Key Words: Social Media Marketing, Business Organization, Community, Face Book.
6Do Firms in Incubation Innovate Too? Evidence from Portugal
JO?O P. C. MARQUES
Pages: 498-507
Details (807)
This article examines innovation in micro- and small firms in incubation in Portugal. The research set out to identify patterns of innovative activity toward a sustainable development. A conceptual study was developed, based on the literature and empirical studies, to help understanding of the factors determining innovation in small businesses in incubation facilities. Two conclusions can be drawn from the findings. On the one hand, businesses in incubation units see innovation as an essential, continuing activity with interrelated dimensions. These firms tend to introduce new products, innovate in processes and implement changes in the organization and exploration of new markets. On the other hand the research showed that some areas of innovation depend on the type of origin of the firm, and its size. Key Words: Determinants of innovation, Small firms, Business incubators and Sustainable environment.
7Using Evidence to Build Organizational Capacity for HIV Response Coordination in Nasarawa State, Nigeria
BAKO I A, ATUMA E and SAKA M J
Pages: 508-516
Details (775)
Capacity-related challenges facing institutions at all levels hinder their ability to assume ownership and ensure sustainability of the HIV and AIDS responses. The aim of this research was to demonstrate how customized capacity building using evidence from Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool (OCAT) resulted in an increase in institutional capacity for HIV and AIDS coordination at a sub national level. Baseline assessment of organizational capacity of then Nasarawa State Action Committee on AIDS (NASACA) using Technical and Organizational Capacity Assessment Tool (TOCAT) among Management staff of the agency was carried out in June 2006 and compared with another assessment carried out in May 2009 after customized technical assistance facilitated by the Department for International Development (DFID)/Strengthening Nigeria?s Response to HIV AIDS Programme (SNR). In most of the domains assessed, there were improvements. Organization capacity assessment tools and processes were effective in strengthening the institutional capacity of NASACA to coordinate HIV response in the state. The customized technical assistance was effective in addressing identified gaps in HIV and AIDS response coordination in Nasarawa State. Key Words: Technical Assistance, Capacity Building, Capacity Assessment, Nasarawa.
8Role of Organizational Communication on the Affective Commitment
KATE TRAJKOVA, MARKO ANDONOV and ZORAN MIHAJLOSKI
Pages: 517-527
Details (954)
Socio-economical changes nowadays have significant influence on the internal organizational processes. One considerable psychological predictor for employee efficiency is their commitment to the organization that they belong to. In that context, link between organizational communication as internal organizational processes and psychological factors that have potential influence on the global organizational and individual outputs, arouse interest for this research. Deeper research approach of the psychological factors identifies their causal relationship with organizational processes that enable assumption of activities for humanization of the working process. Subject of this research was level of affective component of organizational commitment influenced by flows of organizational communication (frequency of vertical, horizontal, diagonal and informal communication flow) and identification of difference between two groups of employees: managers and non-managers (executors). Research results toward influence of the communication flow on the level of the affective commitment confirmed the flows of organizational communication have no impact on the level of affective organizational commitment, with the exception of the lateral (diagonal) organizational communication. Communication among employees has significant impact on the degree of affective component of commitment. Research enable design of applicable internal measures and procedures for HRM to increase and maintain significant level of affective commitment such as: internal HRM strategic politics, procedures; practices for building confidence between managers and executives; Improving process of organizational communication. Key Words: Affective component, organizational commitment; organizational communication; employees.
9Does Intellectual Property Promote Innovation? Towards an Understanding of Intellectual Property and World Public Goods
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, MUHAMMAD JUNAID, FARASAT ALI SHAH BUKHARI, ASIM MIRZA, HUSNAIN KAMIL and MUHAMMAD SHAHNAWAZ
Pages: 528-532
Details (855)
Ideas and knowledge are intangible assets of an organization forming the bases of inventions / innovations requiring proper management. Organizations / nations seeking higher financial returns tend to monopolize their ideas and knowledge through intellectual property rights, but, at the cost of limiting the development of a knowledge economy and social welfare. Whereas, organizations / nations working towards social welfare and struggling to develop knowledge based economies support the notion to share their ideas and knowledge with others resulting in global public goods. Both concepts are important, and, require the attention of scholars to suggest how to balance the two views. This paper compares the concepts of intellectual property rights and global public goods with regards to innovation and social welfare by using desk research. Findings reveal that intellectual property rights promote innovation only to some extent by limiting knowledge sharing and social welfare. On the other hand, global public goods promote innovation at large and increase social welfare of the masses. Key Words: Global Public Goods, Innovation, Intellectual Capital, Intellectual Property Rights.
10Success Strategies for Project Management During National Crises: Insights from the British Aviation Industry During World War Two
ESKANDER HOWSAWI, DAVID EAGER, RAVINDRA BAGIA and KLAUS NIEBECKER
Pages: 533-556
Details (752)
Success is a fundamental imperative in the field of project management. The authors contributed to the theme of success by exploring the strategies that assisted in the delivery of successful projects during national crises. The occurrence of these crises stimulates the emergence of different dynamics and constraints that affect every aspect of the socioeconomic system, including projects. The success strategies needed in such contexts are different from those employed during times of peace. This paper reported the results of an introspective study of 24 British aviation projects undertaken during World War Two. The authors revealed six effective strategies that support the delivery of successful projects during a national crisis period. The authors discussed the results and made Links to contemporary projects together with practical recommendations that will enhance the understanding of successful project delivery during national crises. Key Words: project success, national crises, project context, World War Two, content analysis, success strategy.