Year 2014 , Volume  3, Issue 1, Part 3
1Consumer Perception of Quality Service A Case of WAPDA Office Peshawar Pakistan
SHIZRA KAMAL, YASIR AQEEL and SHAHZAD KHAN
Pages: 279-290
Details (1038)
The objective study to research saw administration nature of Pakistan's energy administration supplier. Essential information is gathered from 130 arbitrarily pick power supply Consumers who went to diverse neighborhood places, always a one-month information gathering period. The model portrays eight segments of administration quality-which have been measured on a 5 point Likert scale beginning from emphatically differ to unequivocally concur. The Defendants were requested that fill in a review conveying 11 things in light of SERVQUAL measurements. There are significant inadequacies Numbered in the administration procurement or WAPDA However. The study utilized number likelihood examining. The extent of this examination is restricted to a solitary unit or power supply benefits which can be advocated by considering the uniqueness of thought to explore the administration nature of force supply benefit as it has been started without precedent for Pakistani connection. The study contributes hypothetically towards fruitful use of SERVQUAL to open division associations working in a creating nation and will look help the Local Authorities in enhancing the administration nature of nation's real power supply organization. Key Words: Service, Quality, Customer perception, WAPDA Offices Pakistan.
2E-commerce in Malaysia: Development, Implementation and Challenges
CHE MOHD ZULKIFLI CHE OMAR and ANAS, T.
Pages: 291-298
Details (1744)
The widespread in the use of the Internet as a commercial tool has led firms to seek in conducting business marketing innovatively via computer-mediated environment. The more businesses carried out online, customers will have a wider choice in the search for goods and services through online search. The E - commerce is currently growing rapidly around the world. This development has boosted the economy towards a more positive note and capable of generating a more favorable income. In Malaysia, the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially the Internet has enabled people in Malaysia to use the e- commerce in business and daily activities. The E-commerce applications cover a broad field and not limited to business alone. In fact, it also can provide many advantages to the e- commerce consumers in dealing with daily work that requires financial transactions. This article discusses the use of e- commerce application that is seen from the aspect of developments that take place, especially in Malaysia. In addition, it also discusses the implementation and the challenges that have to be undergone in order to ensure that the e- commerce can be used optimally in the course of daily work. Key Words: E-commerce; ICT; Internet; Malaysia.
3Affection of Managing General Budget by Choosing tax types on Third World Countries Economic Equilibrium
ABDULLAH IBRAHIM NAZAL
Pages: 299-306
Details (971)
This study concentrates depending on tax in third world countries to finance general budget. There are negative reactions than first world countries as result to loss self-sufficient. Wrong using of tax types leads to loss government support because company loss profit and assets value also citizen may transfer from middle income level to limit income level. Length of bad case will reduce local currency price. Wrong using of tax types direct economic supply and demand against equilibrium. Searcher recommended applying tax up to real needs beside find other ways to get returns as sharing with companies because sharing will show government real affect of factors on economic sectors. Sharing up to reach self-sufficient strategy is away to collect government, companies and citizens to work as group. Key Words: Self-sufficient, Tax, income statement, government and economic.
4Audit Committee and Earnings Management: Pre and Post MCCG
NIK MOHAMAD ZAKI NIK SALLEH and MOHD HASSAN CHE HAAT
Pages: 307-318
Details (978)
The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of audit committee in constraining earnings management after the revised MCCG among listed firms on Bursa Malaysia. Specifically, the study explores how audit committee impacted earnings management before and after the revision of MCCG in 2007. This study is important because it is among the pioneer empirical evidences to compare the effectiveness of audit committee characteristics in mitigating earnings management between the pre and post revised MCCG periods. The sample for this study was drawn from 280 companies listed on Bursa Malaysia in 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2009. The audit committee characteristics include size, independence, expertise, frequency of meetings and activity disclosure. The discretionary accrual was estimated using the Modified Jones Model (1995) which was used to proxy for earnings management. The empirical results on audit committees play an important and effective role in reducing earnings management after the revision of MCCG. After controlling for firm size, board size and leverage, the study found that audit committee size and audit committee that had meetings with external auditor without the presence of executive directors at least twice a year showed a significant association with earnings management. Overall, these findings called for further examination into the roles of audit committee in mitigating earnings management. Key Words: Audit committee, earnings management, expertise, activity disclosure, Malaysian Code of Corporate Governance (MCCG).
5The Survey of Human Capital Effect on Economic Growth in Oil Rich Countries
ALIREZA DAGHIGHIASLI, TEYMOUR MOHAMMADI and MARYAM SHAHBAZI
Pages: 319-326
Details (1039)
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying the relation between human capital and economic growth. In this research we attempted to analyze the effect of human capital, oil reserves and health expenditure on economic growth during the period of 1980 to 2010 for five groups of oil-rich countries through the so-called Resource Curse hypothesis .The results indicate that human capital has a positive effect on economic growth of Middle East, European Eurasia, North America and Central America countries; however, it does not have any effect on that of African countries. Key Words: Human capital, Economic growth, Oil Resource, Health, Education.
6Insurance: An Islamic Viewpoint
YOUSEF M.SAADEH, SALEH K. ALOKDEH and MOHAMMAD AISHAT
Pages: 327-332
Details (922)
Insurance is a co-operative (contractual) system among people to carry out the results of tort that may happen to anyone of them and pay his losses and damages. Insurance began with a co-operative nature then ended up as commercial (business). Islamic scholars (Imams), addressed Insurance because it is new and it was imported to our societies. Scholars had different pointviews about Insurance, which were divided mainly to: 1- Those who consider insurance Halal (accepted). 2- Those who consider insurance Haram (forbidden). 3- Those who consider commercial insurance done by companies as Haram and suggest co-operative and governmental insurance (social security). 4-Those who consider insurance Haram (forbidden) and suggest Islamic insurance in two stages. 5- Those who consider insurance Haram and suggest Islamic insurance through the application of Zakat. Key Words: Insurance, Co-Operative, Insurance, Social Security and Zakat.
7The Roles of Decentralization of the Decision Making Process between Contextual Factors and Decision Process Output
MAHMOOD NOORAIE
Pages: 333-347
Details (936)
The purpose of this paper is to identify the roles of decentralization of the strategic decision-making process between contextual factors and decision process output. From analysis of alternative research approaches, a field survey was most appropriate methodological choice. This study is a field study of real organizations rather than an artificial setting. The questionnaire consists of items measuring the variables of primary interest, namely the independent, mediator, and dependent variables. The study was conducted in central part of the country involving medium and large size manufacturing firms. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicate that decentralization in the strategic decision-making process mediates the influence of organizational slack, environmental dynamism and managers need for achievement on quality of the decision process output. But do not mediate the influence of the decision familiarity on quality of the decision process output. Key Words: Strategic decisions, Decision?s familiarity, Environmental dynamism, Organizational slack, Need for achievement.
8The Application of Scenario-Based Planning in SMEs
MAHSA MOLAIE and AMIR EMAMI
Pages: 348-357
Details (945)
This paper aims to provide an introduction to scenario-based thinking and planning and to encourage the use of this method in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by entrepreneurs. Because of their nature and size, the activities of SMEs in dynamic and indefinite environments are more than large companies. To maintain competitiveness, they have to anticipate market environmental changes and to be able to match their business activities to those changes. Scenario-based planning is a tool that can provide such capability. It increases companies? power in facing with environmental changes and decision makers will consider more aspects in selecting alternatives. The present paper reviews scenario-based analysis and its application in market forecasting. In parallel with this goal, some explanations in relation to scenario-based planning, historical background, applications and method of its use are presented first. Then, its application in SMEs is reviewed and finally, research model will be presented. Key Words: Decision Making, Market Forecasting, Scenario-based Planning, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs.)
9Impact of Firms Strategic Predisposition on Consumers Perceived Value of Green Products
SYED ALI RAZA HAMID, SULTAN TAHIR MEHMOOD KIANI, SIDRA KIANI and M RAZA TAHIR KIANI
Pages: 358-363
Details (868)
This study aims to investigate firms? strategic predisposition and its impact on perceived value towards green products. The model comprises strategic predisposition, perceived value and green products. A purposive sampling has been proposed which accounts for 50 knowledgeable respondents both working professionals and laymen (users of designated products). All the constructs in the constituted model have been tested using a five point likert scale developed by the researcher subject to preliminary and post interviews followed pilot testing. The data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics as well as Regression, and One Way ANOVA. The study has concluded that given the strategic predisposition of firms, strong perceived value could contribute in having green products. Furthermore, perceived value can be positively formed when firms pursue strategic predisposition about environmentalism. The presence of such strategic actions tends to form positive relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable also implies two way (firms & consumers) readiness. Key Words: Firms, Strategy, Perceived Value, Sustainable Marketing, Green Products.
10Cause? Attributes and Consumers? Purchase Intention: Empirical Evidence from Telecommunication Sector of Pakistan
IRFAN SABIR, SAIRA AZIZ, ABDUL MANNAN, WASEEM BAHADUR, RUKHSHANDA FAROOQ and NAEEM AKHTAR
Pages: 364-375
Details (1174)
The current study was conducted to explain the influence of cause? attributes on consumers? purchase intentions in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan. Data was collected on five point likert scale through self-administered questionnaire from the users of a SIM card of a telecommunication network. The questionnaires were personally administered at Okara and Sahiwal cities. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (S.P.S.S) version 20.0 was used to analyze the data. Reliability of the instrument was ensured through Cronbach?s Alpha test. Correlation and multiple regression tests were applied to measure the nature and size of association among variables and test the hypotheses. The results of data analyses indicated (i) a positive relationship between the degree of cause? participation for consumers and the consumers? purchase intentions (ii) a positive relationship between donation amount and the consumers? purchase intentions. Key Words: Congruence between firms? products and cause, Degree of cause?s participation for consumers, Donation proximity, Donation Amount, Purchase Intention.
11Opportunity Discovery under Risky Conditions
JAHANGIR YADOLLAHI FARSI and AMIR EMAMI
Pages: 376-384
Details (940)
The purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of entrepreneurs decision-making when they are faced with risky conditions at the time of opportunity discovery. Thus, in an experimental study, we compared two groups of entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs according to their manners of decision-making. The study draws on an internet-based survey sent in December 2013 to 120 adults (60 entrepreneurs and 60 non-entrepreneurs). Entrepreneurs were from different small businesses in three different industries. Participants were randomly assigned to three different non-entrepreneurial tasks of life and death, investment and time plus one entrepreneurial opportunity task. All the tasks were designed based on risky choice framing in negative vs. positive conditions. Results show that entrepreneurs are impervious to framing effects in opportunity scenario and show very little inconsistency in risk seeking behavior in both negative and positive conditions. Key Words: Cognitive biases, Entrepreneurial Opportunity, Framing Effects, Judgment and decision-making.
12Adoption of E-Commerce amongst Pakistani Consumers A Case of Mobile Banking
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, MUHAMMAD SHAHNAWAZ, BATOOL ZAIDI, HUSNAIN KAMIL and NAEEM AKHTAR
Pages: 385-396
Details (948)
Since year 2000, Pakistan has been enjoying a tremendous growth in telecommunication sector. The Pakistan did not pay much attention towards mobile commerce as compared to the western countries. This study intended to examine Pakistani consumers? behavior towards mobile commerce. The m-commerce market in Pakistan is moving towards little growth. The study aimed to investigate diffusion and adoption of mobile banking among Pakistani university students and lecturers using Technology Acceptance Model. The study used stratified random sampling technique and self-administered questionnaire based on five point likert scale to collect data from university students and teachers having bank accounts (N=300). Regression analysis, reliability analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the collected data. Findings revealed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and self efficacy heightens the intention to use mobile banking. The perceived risk, perceived costs, perceived compatibility and usage frequency exerts negative influences on intention to use mobile banking. The implications for marketers and limitations were also included in study. Key Words: E-commerce, Mobile banking, M-commerce, Technology, Adoption, Usefulness, Ease of use.
13Investigating the Effect of Suitable Marketing Mix Strategies on Iranian Protein Products Export Performance (e.g. Chicken and Egg)
SEYED FATHOLLAH AMIRI AGHDAIE, FARHAD SANAEI and REZA MOAZEDI
Pages: 397-404
Details (1018)
The purpose of the present paper is to examine the of effect of appropriate marketing mix strategies on Iranian protein products export performance. 4P (Price, Product, Place, Promotion) were selected as marketing strategies. The data used to test the hypotheses were collected through an online standard questionnaire. The respondents were asked to rate on the scale between strongly agree and strongly Disagree. Reliability of questionnaire was measured using Cronbach Coefficient Alpha. The results show that export performance was affecting all factors except of promotion. Generally, the findings indicate that export development of Iranian protein products is affected by the use of appropriate marketing strategy. Thus, exporters can improve their performance with select appropriate marketing strategy. Key Words: Marketing strategy, Export, Marketing Mix.
14Conflict Rules on Contractual Obligations in Romanian Private International Law
BERLINGHER REMUS DANIEL
Pages: 405-411
Details (959)
In the present paper, I have analyzed the Law applicabile to contractual obligations under Regulation (EC) No. 593/2008. A contract shall be governed by the law chosen by the parties. The choice shall be made expressly or clearly demonstrated by the terms of the contract or the circumstances of the case. By their choice, the parties can select the law applicable to the whole or to a part of the contract.To the extent that the law applicable to the contract has not been chosen by the parties, the law governing the contract shall be determined concordantly with this Regulation. Key Words: Conflictual norm, Conflict rules, Contractual obligations in civil and commercial matter, Special contracts, lex voluntatis, the law chosen by the parties, ROME I.
15Project Management During National Crisis: Concept Development
ESKANDER. HOWSAWI, DAVID. EAGER, RAVINDRA. BAGIA and KLAUS. NIEBECKER
Pages: 412-422
Details (895)
National crises such as wars, economic crises and natural disasters are increasing in number and frequency worldwide. The context of a national crisis is unique and contains many abnormal challenges. Despite these challenges, projects are being commenced and executed during these events. Due to the abnormality of a national crisis context, the authors attempted, in this theoretical work, to propose the concept of project management during national crisis. Through literature synthesis and the content analysis of several data sets, the authors proposed a definition of the concept of crisis project management. This includes points of differences from peacetime project management and the common characteristics of a national crisis, with impact on project management processes. The authors discussed the results and provided some suggestions for further research. Key Words: Project management; national crisis; theoretical research; project context; crisis characteristics; content analysis.
16Impact of Covert Marketing on Consumer Buying Behavior
RAJA IRFAN SABIR, MUHAMMAD ARSLAN SARWAR, MUHAMMAD IQBAL RANA, SALMAN ZULFIQAR, NAEEM AKHTAR and HUSSNAIN KAMIL
Pages: 423-430
Details (1098)
The Advertising world has become competitive and more complex; requiring advertisers, marketers and producers to use different modern communication techniques. The modern advertising techniques include online advertising, covert advertising, indirect advertising, social service advertising, celebrity advertising, in-store advertising, and digital out of home advertising. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Covert Marketing on Consumer Buying Behavior in the Context of Pakistan. Quantitative research method was used and data was collected through survey research method by using adapted questionnaire. A sample of 1000 valid questionnaires was collected from major cities of Pakistan. Results show that the instrument is reliable to measure the constructs. Correlation analysis shows a positive relationship between independent and dependent variable. Regression analysis showed that Covert Marketing Brand awareness and Brand recall are responsible for significant change in consumer buying behavior whereas Covert Marketing Brand recognition is not responsible for any significant change in Consumer Buying Behavior. Key Words: Covert Marketing, Brand Awareness, Brand Recognition, Brand Recall, Buying Behavior.
17Modelling Earning Gaps: An Assessment of the Impact of Sticky Floors and Glass Ceiling in Lebanon
ALE J. HEJASE, HUSSIN J. HEJASE and ALE H. HEJASE
Pages: 431-443
Details (867)
Efficiency in the labour market is usually accounted for in order to understand and assess earning gaps that prevail among males and females. Arguing that the individuals? skills, productivity, and commitment to work ultimately determine their incomes sounds too na?ve to explain the earnings? differential between males and females. In fact, discrimination against females may occur at different stages of their career path. The wage gap is apparent at the top (glass ceiling) as well as at the bottom (sticky floors) of wage distribution. This paper intends to explore earning gaps as a function of the characteristics of existing Lebanese human capital and labour productivity in selected white collar jobs within a large institution of the service industry. Quantitative analysis using linear regression is conducted. Outcomes of the research are expected to lead to the exploration and the explanation of the impact of automatic stabilizers on the Lebanese labour market in reducing gender disparity, and hence to discuss the government?s intervention practices. Key Words: Gender wage gap, Lebanon, Lebanese labour.