Year 2013 , Volume  2, Issue 4, Part 1
1Capacity Building in the Public Service in Kenya An Evaluation of the Senior Management Course
SUSAN NGURE and ESTHER NJIRU
Pages: 878-892
Details (854)
This paper assesses the effectiveness of the senior management course offered at the Kenya school of Government (KSG) to middle level management staff as perceived by the participants of the program. The program was developed in the 1960s and has since undergone various reviews with the current revision having been launched in 2008. The aim of the paper is to highlight the reactions of employees, who have gone through the program, on its effectiveness in preparing them for their roles at senior management levels. The research was based on a survey of participant evaluations using the Kirkpatrick framework of training evaluation, at reaction level. The reaction level measures the participants? interest, motivation, and attention levels (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2005). This level is important for the future of the program because the motivation to learn, and changes in behaviour, is greatly influenced by the participants? positive reactions. The key finding was that the perceptions of participants about the relevance, delivery and application of the Senior Management Course vary significantly and correlate negatively with age, job group, years in service and years served in their current job group. The main contribution of this paper lies in highlighting how to improve the effectiveness of management development programmes as well as informing both policy and practice in the public sector. Key Words: Capacity Building, Public Service, Management, Evaluation, Kenya.
2Investigating the Level of Readiness for the Implementation of Re-engineering in Education System
ALIREZA HEIDARZADEGAN, SEYED ALIGHOLI ROWSHAN and MARYAM KOOCHAKZAEI
Pages: 893-907
Details (820)
The current study aims to investigate the level of readiness to implement re-engineering in education system of Sistan and Baluchestan province. It is a survey research whose target population is consisting of 299 staffs in general administration of education in Sistan and Baluchestan province. 169 employees were chosen among the staffs on the basis of Morgan table and random sampling. Required data were achieved based on three following questionnaires: 1) the questionnaire designed by Abdolrahman et al. (2008), mention should be made though that several changes were made and some questions added to it, 2) the organizational structure questionnaire designed by Frank (2006) and 3) author?s questionnaire which has been planned based on customer-oriented culture and information technology. The obtained data were analyzed by means of one-group T test and Friedman analysis of variance. Findings of the study indicated that education system of Sistan and Baluchesan province is averagely ready to implement re-engineering. Moreover, Friedman test?s results of ranking showed that information technology is the most important element, and supporter management is the least important one among infrastructural elements. Key Words: Establishing re-engineering, successfully factors, Egalitarian leadership, Collaborative working environment, Management commitment, supportive management, Customer orientation culture, Resistance to change, Information Technology, Organizational structure.
3Why Customers Stay: The Role of Switching Costs on the Satisfaction-Trust-Commitment Chain
AZİZE ŞAHİN and HAKAN KİTAP?I
Pages: 908-916
Details (943)
Creating, increasing, and securing satisfaction, trust and commitment for a brand are central to many corporate strategies because obtaining new customers is costly and customer retention is connected to long-term profitability. The present study explores the relationship among brand satisfaction, brand trust, and brand commitment with an emphasis on understanding the linking role played by switching costs. The authors develop a model that explains how switching costs impact upon the brand satisfaction-trust-commitment chain. The model proposes that moderating effects of switching costs the relationship among brand satisfaction, trust and commitment. The authors analyse the relationships of satisfaction-trust, and trust-commitment for the customers of cell phone brands. The model is tested on data collected from 457 real consumers in Istanbul, Turkey. The results indicate that switching costs have moderating effects in the relationships between satisfaction, trust and commitment for a brand. This empirical study provides a new approach to understand the effects of switching costs on the relationships between satisfaction, trust, and commitment for a brand. The authors conclude with a discussion of these and other implications for researchers and practitioners. Key Words: Switching Costs, Brand Satisfaction, Brand Trust, Brand Commitment, Global Cell Phone Brands.
4Staffing Contingent Workers in 2020: Amending an Inequality
ANGELA R PAYNE
Pages: 917-926
Details (848)
Since World War II, the concept of staffing contingent workers has steadily gained traction. Contingent workers are temporary or part-time workers who are hired on a short-term basis. Currently, contingency agencies employ more than 2.6 million workers. The figure denotes a significant increase since 1991, when 1.5 million workers were in contingent occupations. For a nominal wage, contingent workers have become a commodity, plausibly interposing the status quo. This paper presents a critical evaluation of the concept of contingent workers: its conceptualization after World War II, its role in the current staffing industry, and its impact on staffing strategies. It is argued that the lack of statutory constraints perpetuates the exploitation of contingent workers in the staffing industry. This paper questions whether statutory context will diminish the exploitation of contingent workers. Key Words: Contingent Workers, Staffing Industry, Temporary Employment.
5The Determinants of Employment in Jordan: A Time Series Analysis
AL-ABDULRAZAG A. BASHIER and AMEERAH N. WAHBAN
Pages: 927-936
Details (846)
This study investigated the impact of macroeconomic variables on labor employment in Jordan for the period 1980-2012 by using the fully Modified Ordinary Least Square approach (FMOLS). The economic model incorporated the labor employment as the dependent variable whereas the real Gross Domestic Product (GDP), real Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), and the value of total trade were the independent variables. The results of the time series properties unit root and the Johansen co-integration tests revealed that that all variables were integrated of order one, I(1) and cointegrated indicating the existence of long-run equilibrium among variables included in the econometric model. There empirical findings showed that all variables have positive and significant impacts on employment level in Jordan labor market. Moreover, the findings showed that real Gross Domestic Product had the substantial influence on employment and a 10% increase in real Gross Domestic Product caused a 6.78% increase in employment level. The employment elasticity with respect to real Foreign Direct Investment was 0.267. It was expected that the findings of this study could be utilized by the government for future follow-up and reassessment of economic development programs in Jordan. One important policy recommendation was the attraction of Foreign Direct Investment into Jordan by setting out some economic policies that would make Jordan more attractive to foreign investors. Key Words: Co-integration, FMOLS, economic growth, FDI, Labor.
6Corporate Multinational Flexibility Option and Bankruptcy Resolution
H. YOUNG BAEK and DONG-KYOON KIM
Pages: 937-950
Details (861)
This study is to examine the effects of a firm?s multinational flexibility option on the outcomes of Chapter 11 and durations in the process. For a sample of 403 U.S. companies that filed for bankruptcy protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, we find that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are more likely to emerge from Chapter 11 than domestic enterprises (DEs). Further examination finds that foreign sales ratio is not a significant predictor of successful emergence from Chapter 11, but foreign asset ratio and the number of foreign countries with a revenue-generating subsidiary improve the likelihood of emergence from Chapter 11, suggesting the advantages of multinational network such as operating flexibility, tax savings, and financing advantage. Key Words: Multinational Network, Flexibility Option, Bankruptcy Resolution, Chapter 11.
7Analysis of Street Food Consumption Across Various Income Groups in the Kumasi Metropolis of Ghana
JAMES OSEI MENSAH, ROBERT AIDOO and APPIAH NOAH TEYE
Pages: 951-961
Details (1288)
This study aimed to analyze the consumption of street food across various income groups in the Kumasi metropolis. A combination of stratified, simple and systematic random sampling technique was employed to select operational areas and respondents house respectively. Primary and cross sectional data at household level collected from three towns in the Kumasi metropolis were used to identify the factors that determine Street Food (SF) consumption by employing multiple regression model through the use of Ordinary Least Square (OLS). Further, total household food expenditure and proportion of household expenditure on SF by individuals were estimated. It was found out that: estimated average monthly household expenditure was GH₵ 476.91, GH₵ 403.3, and GH₵ 390.23 for the high, middle and low income groups respectively. However the low income groups spent 85% of their income on food compared to middle 79.99% and higher 60.09%. Likewise, 84.79, (21.73%), 68.69 (17.03%) and 45.51 (9.56%) were the estimated individual proportion of household expenditure on Street Food across the same income groups. It was empirically noted that educational level and household size were significant at 1% with negative relationship with street food consumption whilst income was also significant at 5% with a negative relationship. Gender and time spent away from home (TSAFH) also had a significant positive relationship with street food consumption at 1% level. It can therefore be concluded that low income groups spent greater portion of their income on food and individually, greater proportion of their household food expenditure on street foods than other income groups. Key Words: Street Food, Consumption, Income Groups, Kumasi.
8Indicators of Organizational Sustainability: A Proposition From Organizational Competences
FLAVIO AUGUSTO CELLA-DE-OLIVEIRA
Pages: 962-979
Details (844)
The concept of organizational sustainability (OS) is deeply linked to the Triple Bottom Line (TBL), which is a hierarchical model that segments the OS into economic, environmental and social pillars. This article rescues the OS framework of Munck, Munck, & Borim-de-Souza (2011), in which the authors suggest the use of competences as support for OS. However, even so, there are gaps for OS management and evaluation. From this, the present article bases itself in the concept of delivery, suggesting that each competence possess a set of expected actions and results and and suggests a series of deliveries for the OS competence. Such deliveries are understood as indicators which allow the measurement of the OS. Key Words: Organizations, Sustainability, TBL, Segment and Management.
9EFQM Excellence Model
AKYAY UYGUR and SEVGI SUMERLİ
Pages: 980-993
Details (1402)

Performance improvement is high on the agenda of many companies around the world and with the growing number of improvement models now available care has to be taken to adopt an approach that will yield the most attractive return on investment. The EFQM Excellence model is a non-prescriptive framework for continuous quality improvement that can be used by any kind of organization, regardless of sector, size, structure, or maturity. The essential elements that constitute the EFQM are the fundamental concepts of excellence. EFQM Excellence Model is one of the self assessment tools helping companies in regularly questioning their own activities and results of activities and determining strong and weak points. The aim of this study is to investigate the relation between results of basic performance, leadership, partnership and resources, and process parameters of a company operating in manufacturing industry. Key Words: EFQM Excellence Model, Performance Measurement, EFQM, Quality İmprovement.

10Demographic Factors in the Evaluation of Service Quality in Higher Education: International Students? Perspective
SEIN MIN and CHEY CHOR KHOON
Pages: 994-1010
Details (854)
The increasing number of international students studying in advanced countries has focused attention on service quality in higher education. Service quality is a subjective matter and hence its measurement is usually made from the perspective of students. This study adopts the conceptual framework proposed by Min, Khoon and Tan (2012) in which motives of the study, expectation, perception and satisfaction are highlighted as being the key elements of service quality. This study attempts to investigate the role of demographic factors in the evaluation of service quality. The study used the data from a survey conducted in a private higher education institution in Singapore. The results revealed that, among the demographic variables, gender, nationality and the present level of study are influential in the evaluation of service quality, but the age factor does not make any significant difference in the key elements of the service quality evaluation. Nationality is found to be the most influential factor in the motivation and evaluation of service quality. A demographic, the present level of study can also cause different levels of motives of study, expectation of service quality and satisfaction. Gender impacts more on the level of satisfaction of the service than on service quality. Thus, educational marketers are well-advised to deliver educational services based on demographic segments, particularly nationality groups and levels of study. Key Words: Service Quality, Motives, Expectation, Perception, Satisfaction, Demographic Factor, Higher Education.